Ancient sites, towns and villages

Ancient places and towns of Dadu
Aziz Kingrani

Dadu district of Sindh, a southern province of Pakistan is treasure of historical, archaeological and cultural heritages. Numerous historical and archaeological sites, places, towns and villages are situated in the boundaries of present Dadu District. Such historical richness of Dadu District is briefly discussed herein article.

The historical antiquity of our district headquarter Dadu is unavailable in the pages of history, except a little town of Dadu near Jaipur city, India. It seems that Dadu itself is not as antique as the other villages and towns of the district. Dadu is not mentioned in history up to the dynasty of Kalhora. The little hamlets, villages and towns in its surroundings are more ancient than Dadu. Such as Marakhpur near Dadu is more ancient than Dadu, but now it is included with Dadu city. According to local legends Dadu was named after Dadan, Dad Muhammed or Dadu Shah. While, there is no any confirmation in this regard that Dadu Shah named person lived and died here. Because of, neither mausoleum Dadu Shah nor his grave is in Dadu. According to legends, Dadu Shah lived at his village Dadu Ja Bhaan near Dadu. Even there is no certain for village Dadu Ja Bhaan. Ustad Bukhari had told me that there is no sure about grave of Dadu Shah in Dadu. Dadu is a word of Sindhi and Hindi, which means brother. Dadu Dayal (1544-1603), a great saint, poet and follower of Guru Gorakhnath is mentioned in history who gave a new Panth of Yogi which became known as Dadu-panth. He belonged to Gujarat. India. later, he moved to Amber (city), near Jaipur Rajasthan, where he had preached his teachings. Dadu alludes to the bliss of Sahaja in his songs. Much of the imagery used in his songs is similar to that used by Bhagat Kabir, and similar also to that used by the earlier Sahajiya Buddhists and Nath yogis. Osho says, “Without Gorakhnath, there could be no Kabir, no Nanak, no Dadu, no Vajid, no Farid, no Meera — without Gorakhnath none of these are possible.”. Dadu ji spent the latter years of his life in Narayana, a small distance away from the town of Dudu, near Jaipur city (Wikipedia: web site). Dr Abdul Jabbar Junejo writes with reference of Dr Nabi Bux Baloch in “Sindhi Adab Ji mukhtasir Tareekh that he (Dadu Dayal) lived in Sindh for long time. He had good knowledge of Sindhi. He did poetry in Rajasthani, Hindi and Sindhi. Qazi Qadan influenced him. His poetry is included in Shah Latif’s Sur Berag (Junejo: 265: 1994). Dhani Bux Magsi has mentioned that two Hindus having title of “Dadunavasi”, Mr Dayo Ram (1836-1906) and Sanat Bhagat Ram. According to him they were Hindu Sanats (Saints) of Dadu. In those days, in the temples of Dadu mostly “Jagatnath” was worshiped by Hindus of Dadu (Magsi:480:2005). Probably it might have been Dadu-Vansi. In Sindhi and Hindi Vans means offspring, descendant. It is confirmed that Dadu Dayal came to Sindh and influenced by Qazi Qadan. Qazi Qadan was of Sehwan. It is suspicion that having gone to Veernath Ashram and Mandir (Temple) near Khairpur Nathan Shah, Dadu Dayal might have come here to preach and halted at Ashram or Mandir located at Dadu with his followers. After his halt, the Ashram or Mandir (Temple) might have been named Dadu by his followers. Later, these two Dadu-Vansi Sanats (Saints) might have continued preaching since ancestors. Because, the worship of Jagatnath in Dadu is clear evidence about Gorakhnath and Dadu Dayal. However, Dadu was lying on the banks of channel of water named Ghaar wah or Ghari wah flowing from Indus River. I think Ghari wah might have been connected with western Nara canal. Dadu was near to the historical way called “Sher Shah Suri route” which used to lead to Do’abo, Talti and Sehwan from Ustad Bukhari Degree College Dadu. Dadu developed quickly in British period. When it became taluka headquarter of Karachi and later Larkana districts. Dadu got position of district head quarter in 1931 but it began to become populated city from 1980s (1980). Recently Dadu district has been divided in to two districts. Dadu, Johi, Khairpur Nathan Shah and Mehar talukas have been included with Dadu district and Sehwan, Kotri and Mahaal Kohistan have been curved from Dadu and included with Jamshoro district.
Johi word is denoted from “Juhi” or “Joohi”, which means a little clump of trees. It is used in feminine gender. According to local traditions, a little village was on the bank of Nai (Hill torrent) near an ancient trade route. Travelers or trade caravans used to rest for some moments, under that little clump of trees. Later, some people settled near the clump and village was called Juhi. In British government record, it is also mentioned as “Juhi”. The pronunciation of name Juhi began to change in the period of British government. Now it is called Johi. When and by whom Johi was established? It is unanswered question. Because of, there is no certainty in this regard. Some historical remains near Johi can enlighten on antiquity of Johi. The stupas near Johi which is now sitting place of Najif Ali Shah and at its neighboring village Gul Mohammad Gumb indicate the antiquity of Johi that it exists since ancient time. This area was in Buddhya division (Pargano) in Rai dynasty. Buddhya was area of Buddhists. In Brahman’s dynasty Kako son of Kotal Chhana (In Buddhism legend traditions Channa is mentioned as charioteer of Buddha) was ruler of Buddhya and his fort was Sesum. (Qani’a:80:2004) So we can say that Johi existed before the Rai dynasty. In the map of 1877_78, Johi is shown as only Deh of Tapa Phulji. It means that Johi was not developed till 1878. No doubt, Johi began to develop in British government period. First Johi was in Karachi from administrative point of view. Later, it remained in Shikarpur and Larkana districts. When Dadu became district in 1931, Johi was included as Taluka headquarter. As a taluka head quarter, Johi developed. Now it is main town of Dadu district. On other hand Johi is also Zoroastrian community settled in several parts of the world. Some people relate Johi with Indian actress Juhi Chawala that her descendents belonged to Johi and some are of the opinion that Johi is derived from Juhi flower. I am of the opinion that it is only presumption.

Mehar is main taluka head quarter of Dadu district. When it was established and how it had been named as Mehar, there is no any certainty. Local people reveal its name as Menhan-war or Menhan-waro means a herd of buffalo. Probably it was near Sindh Hallo which flowed in ancient times from Kashmore Kandhkot towards Manchhar Lake. How much this imagination is near to reality, nothing would be said. It would be said with certain that Mehar began to develop in British government era, when it has been given a level or dignity of taluka head quarter of Dadu district. Mehar is famous for Maao and Mendi (Lousonia Alba).

Khairpur Nathan Shah
According to local traditions, Khairpur is an ancient place of district Dadu. It existed before the settlement of Nathan Shah. When Nathan Shah settled here, the village was called Khairpur Nathan Shah. Here Nathan name resembles with Nath, belonging to Gorakhnath religious legends. A village, Ashram and Mandir of Veernath are also lying at a distance of 5 kilometers from Khairpur Nathan Shah towards south. However, the antiquity of Khairpur Nathan Shah would be claimed about 4 to 5 hundred years old. This village developed in British government. First this town was in taluka Kakar. Afterward, this town has been given level of taluka head quarter of Dadu district.

Graveyard of Mian Naseer Kalhoro
Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro was a massive leader of Mianwal Movement. He was a leader of Mianwal movement who had strengthened and organized the movement with high wit. Leading the movement from 1656 AD to 1692 AD, he established an interim government in Kachho that became a base of Kalhora dynasty in Sindh. He died and was buried in 1692 AD in graveyard near village Gaarhi, district Dadu. The different types of constructed toms and graves show the different eras. Probably, this graveyard existed before Mian Naseer Muhammad. After burial of Mian Naseer, the graveyard was called and renowned with his name. Graveyard is spread on round about four square acres. Except Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro and his son Mian Deen Muhammad Kalhoro, the tombs of Tajo lekhi -1, Mir Fateh Khan, Bago Chandio and Rajo lekhi-1 are in this graveyard. The graves of 28 martyrs are in this graveyard, who were sacrificed their lives with Mian Deen Muhammad in Multan jail. They were martyred by prince Moiz-u-ddin, the then governor of Multan. The graveyard is notable historical visiting site in Dadu district. The architecture and fresco paintings on walls of toms are precious heritage of Sindh.

Kakar is oldest place of Dadu district. The actual and old village is on a mound like high land. Dr: Nabi Bux Baloch is of the opinion that it is same as village of “Kaka Raj” of of Budhiya Pargano in Rai dynasty, mentioned in Chach Nama due to resemblance in their names. No doubt Kakar is an ancient place but there is no any legend or historical reference about its name and oldness. Kakar was taluka head quarter of Dadu district, but later its level has been decreased. Now it is in taluka Khairpur Nathan Shah.

Radhan is a caste. Here are two villages by this caste. One Radhan village and second is Radhan Station. Radhan village is ancient than Radhan station. When railway lines had been passed near Radhan village, a station had been established here. The people settled at station. This became populated and developed as Radhan station. Radhan is in Mehar taluka of Dadu.

Fareedabad is an ancient village of Taluka Mehar. Fareedabad existed before the settlement of Fareed Bhagat, who was great commander and disciple of Mianwal Movement. Mian Naseer had settled him for looking after lands and defense of the area from danger of any invasion from mountains. From settlement of Fareed Bhagat, the village had been named Freedabad.

Maado is probably denoted from “Maddo” which means a hut or sitting place over water made-up of wooden posts or pillars. According to Johar Brohi, a well-known poet and researcher of this area, the name of village Maado is derived from “Madd” or “Maddo”. This place was on the bank of ancient flow of Indus River flowing from this area of Kachho towards Lake Manchhar. It was also a ferry place or harbor. However, historically it is proved that a big branch of Indus River used to flow through this area. Later, it became the stream of western Nara canal. Lake Manchhar, the biggest lake of Asia, appeared in the result of this big branch of Indus River. In the period of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro a Chandia clan, belonging to Bagho chandio, a follower of Mianwal Movement settled here.

Wahi Pandhi
Wahi Pandhi is the most ancient village of taluka Johi, district Dadu. Wahi means a channel of spring, which flows from mountainous area through the stream of Nai Narri or Nalli towards deserted area near the village. So this village was called Wahi. Kotiro daro indicates its prehistoric antiquity where N.G Majumdar explored the remains of Mohan Jo Daro, Mehi, Kulli, Amri and Nal civilizations. When this village existed at present location? History whispers. In ancient time this village was called Wahi (Jiyasi of Solangi clan), here Karez (Persian artificial system for water) flows, four courses of water (Waah) flow, where people cultivate. First this was village of Machhis (Solangis), who were very disputative and refused to pay taxes of Jageers, Bakhtiar Baig Turkman invaded the village and named it Akbarabad (Mogul Emperor) and handed over to Panhwars (Merik: 123:1994). In Mogul period the name of village was “Wahi” (Qani’a:60:2004). In the time of Shamsher Uzbek this village was included with Baghban Pargano (Makhdoom Bilawal) (Qani’a: 123:1994). The name of this village “Akbarabad” was till Shah Jahan’s period (Qani’a: 219, 239:1994). The name of village is mentioned as wahi in the beginning of Kalhora period. Mian Naseer Muhammad had constructed a fort on the bank of spring channel (Wahi) with the consultation of late Wadero Jalal (Mahar: 154:1996). Later, in Kalhora Period Khoso tribe became dominant on this village. However, from ancient time the name of this village was Wahi. According to local legends, Pandhi Khan Leghari defeated Dilo Khoso and occupied the village. After the occupancy and his settlement the village was called Wahi Pandhi. This village is on a way to Gorakh Hill Station.

Village Gaha
This ancient village is remembered and mentioned in history as village “Kahan”. In Sama’s dynasty, the village and its surroundings were the Jageer of Darya Khan. When differences rose between Darya Khan and Jam Feroz, he left Thatta and returned to his village (Gaaha) and settled here. The Madarsa of this village was famous in Sindh. In those days Molana Aseeruddin Abahri, Molana Yar Muhammad Abahri And Molana Abdul Aziz Abahri came here from Hirat and taught here in Madarsa (Lakho:77: 1997) and he (Abdul Aziz) settled here (at Gaha) for ever and died here (Qani’a:80:2004) According to Janal-ul-Sindh, Darya Khan remaining some time in government, he resigned from his designation and lived at Gaha (Rahimdad: 308: 2000) In mughal period Gaha was main village and division. Fourth division is of Gaha, village of Gaha is 21 miles away from Sehwan toward north-west (Merik: 123:1994). The influence of Rai Chand Gorya (Ghorya) remained in this division in Mogul era. When the grandson of Roy Chand Ghorya was Gaagirdar of this division, he fought with some people of this area (Merik: 171:1994) Korya (Ghorya) took Sehwan division on contract and gave it in charge of his person named Jaysar (Merik: 195:1994) At the time of Khuwaja Nooruddin, Manik son of Hindu Ghorya was ruler of Gaha division (Merik: 197:19941). In this division two shares had Ghorya and third share had empire. He took third share on contract and gave it under the supervision of his son Manik (Merik: 302:1994) He (Manik) constructed fort at Gaha and lived there. He kept many riders (as Force) from mughal and Afghans, cannon man and expert archers as servant (Merik: 171:1994) Manik’s disputes remained with Panhwars in this division. Manik called sardar (Head) of Panhwars and imprisoned him in fort. He invaded on village Sekarji, after severe fighting Mir son of Essa panhwar was killed. The name of fort constructed by Manik Hindu in Gaha was Kanwar Kot (Merik: 171:1994). Influence of Manik in Gaha was at high level. In the days of Shah Jahan, Gaha was included in the jageer of Mirza Jani Baig. Manik intended to go to court of emperor but later Jani Baig gave him Gaha Pargano on a pay or tax (Merik: 191:1994).With the conspiracy of Khusro Baig and Qasim Khan Arghun’s sons, Manik was killed as pretence of guest by fateh, son of Qasim (Merik: 304,305:1994).
Village Gaha is also mentioned in Kalhora period. Mian Yar Mohammad returned from Balochistan via Zeedi and reached at Sanwah (Present village of Sawaro Taluka Johi) and Naig on the bank of Manchhar. Snatched Samtani village from Qaiser Panhwar and settled at Gaha. He sent his brother Mir Muhammad to Siraies (members of Mianwal Movement) (Mahar: 190: 1996). For the location of village Gaha the indications are clear in above discussed matter. Concept is clear that the ancient village of Gaha is present village Sayed Bahar Shah, lying in deh Gaha, taluka Johi. It is located at a distance of 7 kilometers from Johi town towards east-south, on left side of Johi-Bhan road at a high mound. Sayed Bahar Shah is famous as Gaahi pir. The local people tell that it was a village of Gahalo king (Rai Ghorya Chand), who was very powerful in his time and ruled over Gaha. Village Sayed Bahar Shah is nearest to village Samtani and it will be at the distance of 21 mile from Sehwan towards west-north. The bridge over Phakka Miner near village Bahar Shah is famous as “Gaha Mori”. Sayed Sharif Shah son of Sayed Bahar Shah also stated a tradition of Gahalo Badshah (King). He has found old currencies from village. Perhaps Gaha tribe lived here and their village was called Gaha. In present time there is no any person or village belonging to Gaha caste. Later, when Khudabad became the capital town of Kalhora dynasty, Gaha village lost its value and in the last of Talpur dynasty, this village lost its original name.

Village Sawaro
This village existed from Sama’s dynasty. This village is on the bank of Sawaro wah (a rainy water course) which had been dug by Darya Khan in Sama’s period. History has mentioned it as village “Sanwah”, “Sao” or “Saway”. Jam Nizamuddin had sent a Hindu minister named Chaglo with Darya Khan to Sehwan, who came here and started rainy water course Sawah (Sawaro), whose water was drained out to Manchhar (Merik: 283:1994) Sawah (Sawaro) was dug in Neroon Kot division for diverting the water of mountainous area (, Merik: 34:1994) Sao (Sawaro) is 38 miles (19 Koh) away from Sehwan fort and 32 miles (16 Koh) away from mountains (Merik: 286:1994). In Kalhora period it is mentioned with same name. Mian Yar Mohammad Kalhoro returning from Balochistan reached on bank of Manchhar at Sanwah (Sawaro) and Naig (Mahar: 190: 1996).I think that in those days, actual name of village was also Sawaro but historians did mistake in its pronunciation. Present village Sawaro is located at the same location, stated as in history. It is round about 20 kilometers away from Johi towards west-south. Sawaro is at a distance about 7 to 8 kilometers from the bank of Manchhar and about 5 kilometers away from village Chhini and Nai Naig towards north, on the bank of rainy wah. Sawaro is deh and union council of taluka Johi.

Village Aararo
This ancient village remained main village in Mughal period. It existed before the influence of Mughal Empire. First it was village of Solangi tribe. Later, it had been snatched from Solangis and handed over to Panhwar clan by Arghuns. Aararo is also mentioned as Aarari in history. Aararo or Aarari is a Sindhi word which means a little mound or high land. It was one of the villages of potho in Mughal’s period. Potho means high land. A village of Panhwars, Potho was near Akbarabad (Wahi Pandhi) (Merik: 32:1994) in Neroon Kot division. (Merik: 239:1994) The other villages of Penhwars of potho, such as Aarari was not in control (Merik: 285:1994) Further it is mentioned that second village Aarari and third Kharoti (?) both of that villages are related to Gaaha division (Merik: 201:1994). When Mian Naseer Mohammad became powerful here, he fought with Panhwars and snatched this area from Panhwars and gave in the charge of Lund tribes, which is still settled here. A deh and Aararo graveyard is situated in Johi Taluka, District Dadu, in the same area which is mentioned in history as an ancient village Aarari. In deh Aararo, the tombs of a graveyard are also called Butta Quba. Near this graveyard, the remains of old village Aararo can be observed. The graveyard is at some distance from village Patt Suleman direct towards north.

Khanpur is located on the both sides of Indus high way in taluka Khairpur Nathan Shah, district Dadu. This is an old village of district. When and how it was named as Khanpur? The history is silent about its antiquity. According to the legends Khan of Kalat had established a watching place here at the location of present Khanpur. Later, some people began to live and little village was named Khanpur. Why, when and which Khan of Kalat had established a watching place here? Certainty is unavailable. However, in Kalhora dynasty Khanpur got main position.

Graveyrd of Paryani Pir
So called graveyard of Paryani Pir is situated near Khanpur village towards east-south. It is said that tombs in graveyard belong to Pirs who were offspring of fairy (Paree). Unbelievable traditions have been related to unknown persons who are buried in this graveyard. The fresco paintings on wall of the tombs are valuable heritage of Dadu including Sindh. Who were they? History even traditions are silent. Probably, these unknown tribal people established Khanpur village and were settled at Khanpur from Kalhora to early Talpur period. It seems that they belonged to noted tribe and were disciple of Mianwal Movement. This assumption is based on fresco painting which shows their nobility and 1812 AD year written in painting on wall shows Talpur period. However this graveyard is precious heritage of Sindh.

Tharari Mohabat
Tharari means a village or hamlet. Tharari Mohabat is located between Mehar and Radhan Station. It is main town of taluka Mehar. Nareja, Solangi, Sameja and other clans live at this town. There is no any local tradition about Mohabat whether he belonged to Narejo or Solangi tribe.

Village Chhini
From Mughal period this village exists with same name. Chhini is a compound word of Sindhi. It is derived from Chha (Six) and Nai (Rainy stream). This means stream of six rainy Nais that drains out at one place. A village where flow of six Nais joins is called Chhanai or Chhani. Later, its pronunciation changed as Chhini. Near Chhini six rainy streams join and then flow in one stream to Lake Manchhar. These are Gaj (Through old flow of Shole), Angai, Kukrani, Naig, Khandhani and Haleli. Village Chhini is more ancient. Yousif Merik writes they (Theba) have four villages; three of them are belonging to upper division (Baghban). These villages are called, Kandhkot (not to be confused as present district Kandhkot that was Kanwarkot at Gaha village), Chhini and Theba village (Merik: 161:1994). Mir Abul Qasim himself went to Kandhkot (Kanwarkot), Chhini and Beto (Now Beto Jatoi) villages of Thebas and halted there (Merik: 201:1994) Here Chhini is mentioned as village of Theba clan. It is possible that at the time of Mir Abul Qasim Chhini might have been under the influence or occupancy of Theba tribe. However, Mian Naseer Muhammad also had occupied Chhini village and raised frown against Mughal Empire (Mahar: 154: 1996). After migration from Lahore and Multan he (Mian Naseer) lived there, where Channa clan was settled (Mahar: 154: 1996). It shows the influence of Channa here at the area of Chhini to Gaarhi village. Chhini is a still little village located on the edge of hill near jointed flow of six Nais, about 17 kilometers from Johi, towards south-west.

Tando Rahim Khan
This village is near Gari or Garo pass including other little passes of Khirther mountainous area. According to opinion of NG Majumdar, archeological remains at Tando Rahim Khan are contemporary to Gazi Shah (Marikhar Daro). He writes,”We examined these two chalcolithic stations, Ghazi Shah and Tando Rahim Khan. Each had its own distinguishing features (Majumdar: 86: 1933). Later Rahim Khan Son of Jangu Jamali settled at this village. Since its settlement the village is called Tango Rahim Khan. Jangu had two sons, Shahdad and Rahim Khan. Shadad lived at Haleli and perhaps in the last of Kalhora period Rahim Khan migrated to Tando Rahim. We would know his offspring from given Shujra of Jnagu Khan (Husain Badshah: 502 :2005).

Tharari Jado Shaheed
Tharari Jado Shaheed (Martyred) village had been established by Jado Shaheed Babar, who was a brave commander of Mian Naseer Muhammad. In the days of Mian Deen Mohammad and Mian Yar Mohammad Kalhoro, the governor of Multan Prince Muizuddin had attacked village Garhi. Mian Deen Muhammad had been arrested but Mian Yar Mohammad had not surrendered. He faced Mughal army along with Jado and other commanders. He fought with Mughal army at the place of Khore (actual Tore) on the right bank of River Gaj (Mahar: 170: 1996). Jado shed his blood and martyred. He was buried in graveyard near his village Tharari Jado, where a tomb is built over his grave. After, his martyrdom village Tharari Jado became Tharari Jado Shaheed. It is situated towards west of Kakar and at a distance of about 35 kilometers from Johi towards north.

Village Samtani
This archaic hamlet of Sindh is still existed with same name and it is located at distance of 15 kilometers from Johi along Johi- Bhan road. Most probably, the name of Samtani village is taken from a Hindu clan of Samtani. The place of birth of a world fame Indian scholar N.H Samtani is mentioned as Johi but I think he was born at village Samtani. Anyway, this village is near village Gaha as well as Khudabad. When Koriya (Ghorya) Hindu took Sehwan division on contract, he tried to encumber the people. Encumbering different villages in Gaha pargana, he burnt village Behan, in this way they reached at Kanhri and Samtani where Bahauddin Panhwar was settled. (Merik: 95:1994) Samtani had remained Panhwar’s village since old time. In Mughal era Samtani remained under agonies. One painful event about insult of Qazi Abdul Wahid of Samtani is stated in Tareekh-e-Mazhar-e-Shah Jahani (Merik: 242:1994). When Ahmad Khan heard about this event, he came to Samtani, which was place of Bahauddin Penhwar (Merik: 245:1994). In the beginning of Kalhora dynasty this village was prosperous. Mian Yar Mohammad snatched Samtani from Qaiser Panhwar (Mahar: 190: 1996). This village had a Madrasa for Islamic teachings.
Village Kanhri
Kahri or Kanhri is historical village. In Mughal and Kalhora dynasties this village was main village of Gaha division. Probably, it was named after Kahir Khan (Qahir), who is mentioned in given Shujra (Showing generation) as ancestor of Mian Chanu in Tareekh Sindh Kalhora period, volume-1, on page 49. Before and later in the days of Mian Chanu, this area had remained under the influence of Channa and Kalhora clans. In the west of village Kanhri, there is an area, which is called Patt Kanhri. Now Kanhri village is in taluka Dadu and Patt Kanhri is in taluka Johi of Dadu district. Kanhri remained a village of Seth Naun Mal. He writes, “My ancestorbelonged to Kahri. Kahri is between Bhan town and Nara canal (western). It is 5 mile away from Bhan and one mile away from Nara Canal. This was very prosperous and developed town. One of my ancestors Sajan Mal had lands here (Naun Mal: 48:1996). Naun Mal further tells that clans belonging to Panhwar and Channa tribe used to rule over this area. Kahri and Samtani were their central villages (Naun Mal: 50:1996). In present time Kanhri is a little village of Dadu district.
Village Phulji
Village Phulji is ancient village of Dadu district. Probably before Arghuns, this village was of Machhi (solangi) from Arab period to Sama dynasty. Arghuns snatched from Machhis and gave it in possession of Pahwars. Panhwars settled here and got influence at high level. When Mian Naseer Muhammad established an interim government in this area, he snatched Phulji villagefrom Panhwars and gave it under the supervision of his disciple Mureed Khan-1 Jamali of Mureed Dero. From Kalhora period the descendant of Mureed Khan-1 is settled at Phulji village. When railway lines passed from here, a railway station had been established that was named Phulji Station. Now it is a populated village of Phulji Station. According to revenue map of 1877-78 of Deh Johi, District Karachi and later Larkana, Phulji is mentioned as its Tapa. Phulji village is located towards north-west of Johi, at a distance of about 20 kilometers. The remains of ancient fort of are now vanished.
Sita Village
This is first ancient village in district Dadu, perhaps even in Sindh, which is named and called with the name of a woman. According to local people, sita was non-muslim woman, whose name was Sita. Probably this name belongs to mythology of Hinduism. Sita (Seeta), Sanskrit “Sītā” meaning “furrow”, is the wife of Rama, the seventh Avatar of Vishnu in the Hindu religious traditions. Sita is one of the principal characters in the Ramayana, a Hindu epic named after her husband Rama. Sita was born in Janakpur in Nepal. Her father was King of Janakpur. She is esteemed as the standard setter for wifely and womanly virtues for all Hindu women. Understood theologically in Hinduism, Sita is an Avatar of Lakshmi. The occasion of her marriage to Rama is celebrated as Vivaha Panchami. The legends are that Sita was a founded and discovered in a furrow in a ploughed field, and for that reason is regarded as a daughter of Bhumi Devi, the goddess of the Earth. She was found and adopted by Janaka, king of Mithila and his wife Sunayana. Upon her coming of age, a swayamwara was held to select a suitable husband for her, and she got married to Rama, prince of Ayodhya, an Avatara of Vishnu on Vivaha Panchami (Wikipedia: web site). Probably, here might have temple or worship place related to Sita. Thus the village was named Sita. When railway lines crossed beside this village in British period and a link road had been constructed leading to Sita village, a new village was established as Sita road near railway staion. Sita village is about 6 kilometers away from Sita road towards east near right bank of Indus River. Sita road developed in comparison to Sita village. Later, Sita road was named Rahmani Nangar but still it is called Sita Road by people.

Village Baghban
This village does not exist in now days with same name. It was named martyred Makhdom Bilawal, after the burial of the patriotic Sufi saint Makhdom Bilawal. . In past, due to gardens of different type of fruit trees village and Pargano was called Baghban. Baghban is also Deh in Taluka Dadu. Near the mausoleum and mosque of Makhdom Bilawal toward east-north an old village is located on mound like high land. This village had central position of Pargano (division) Baghban during Sama dynasty and Mughal period. This village is situated along Indus high way at a distance of 10 kilometers from Dadu city words north.

Village Beto
This historical village exists yet with same name, from Mughal period. In Mughal period it was village of Theba tribe. Tareekh Mazhar Shah Jahani writes, “Mir Abul Qasim, himself went to Kandhkot (Kawarkot was in area of presen Johi taluka), Chhini and Beto, the villages of Theba and halted there (Merik: 201:1994). Probably, this village became Beto Jatoi in Talpur’s dynasty after the dominancy of Jatio tribe.

Village Garhi and Mosque of Garhi
Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro has been considered historically as founder of a religious based organization or movement of Mianwal, which became most famous in Sindh as “Mianwal Movement” during the leadership of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Mian Naseer Mohammad Kalhoro, a legend leader of “Mianwal Tahreek” had succeeded his legacy in 1656 AD. Protesting against Mughal Empire he was imprisoned in Gawalyar prison. After liberty from jail, he settled at village Gaarhi, taluka K.N Shah, District Dadu (Mahar: 154: 1996). Village Garhi became as a central place of Mianwal movement for its strengthening and activeness. Mian Naseer established interim government and governed some area of Sindh for approximately 36 years. Here he founded the mosque in 1658 AD. It is believed that mosque had a status of University at that time. Passing 350 years, the mosque exists with its grand and dignified historical view up till now. The legends tell a myth that Garhi was name of a woman who was related to Mian Naseer Muhammad. So, the village was called after her name of Mai Garhi. When we glance at history, village Garhi existed before the settlement of Mian Naseer Mohammad. Actually red or reddish mounds are near village and red sand of mountains is also spread in the surroundings of village. Tareekh Sindh Kalhora period writes, “After leading 35,36 years Mian Sahab (Naseer) died in 1692 AD and he was buried near Garhi at red mound (Mahar: 159: 1996). Thus, due to red or reddish send the village was called “Garhi” which means a red or reddish. It is located towards west of Khanpur taluka K.N Shah and at a distance of some kilometers from graveyard of Mian Naseer Muhammad towards east near historical mosque of village Garhi.

Village Rajo Dero
Rajo Lekhi-1, a vice and main follower of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro had established a village Rajo Dero, near Raj wah where lands were allotted to him by Mian Naseer. It is 30 kilometers away from Johi towards north-west. Rajo Lekhi had been given Jageer up to village Rajo Gandho (Band) which is also related to Rajo Lekhi-1. He is buried in graveyard of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro.

Village Hairo Khan
This is very ancient village of Johi, Dadu. The stupa sited near village towards west gives evidence of its antiquity that this village existed from Rai dynasty but ancient name would not be guessed. Laghari tribe had been settled in Kachho by Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Probably, after the settlement of Hairo Khan Leghari this village was called village Hairo Khan.

Village Drigh Bala
Here are two Drigh villages in Johi Taluka. One is Drigh Lower (Hetheen) and second is Drigh upper (Matheen/ Bala). Village Drigh Bala is located at distance of 30 kilometers from Johi towards west-north on bank of Nai Shole or sole but after diversion band (Teer Bhit) the flow of Nai Gaj was diverted to stream of Nai Sole. Now Drigh Bala can be mentioned on bank of Nai Gaj. Here are also two villages of Drigh Bala. One is Drigh an old (Purani) and second is Drigh new (Naeen). The Talpur Amirs had been settled by Mian Naseer Mohammad Kalhoro in this vicinity of Kachho. Talpurs migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan; their first settlement was Drigh (Talpur: 161:1973). In Kalhora dynasty other Mirs had been given Jageers in different areas of Sindh but Manikani Amirs stayed here Mir Allahyar Khan, Mir Tharo Khan, Mir Chhutto Khan and Mir Saindad Khan lived and died here (Talpur: 161:1973). Drigh Bala was famous for different types of species of vegetables. Here Molvi Saalar Dahari was legend religious personality who ran Madarsa of Drigh Bala. Lived and died here. Fort built by Drigh Bala is also a monument of Talpurs.

Shah Hassan
Shah Hassan is an old village on the bank of Lake Manchhar. History does not speak about its chronological background. Dr Nabi Bux Baloch and other scholars are of the opinion that Shah Hassan might be Sesum fort of Buddhya Pargano in Brahman’s dynasty. Some have related it with Shah Hassan Baig Mirza but there is no historical proof or evidence in this regard. But, no doubt this village is very ancient. It is at a distance of 30 kilometers from Johi town towards west-south.

Village Sukhia Channa
Sukhio Channa was a Sardar (head) of his community. Later, Qadir Bux Channa became famous as main Sardar in this area. Village Sukhia Channa is located towards south of Bahar Shah (Gaha village) at some distance on a high mound in Deh Gaha of taluka Johi. Channa clan ruled over Kachho from Manchhar to Sibi, from Rai dynasty to Samma dynasty. A proverb is famous in Sindhi that “Sindh Samo, Kachhey Channo Bhatti Jesalmir”, which shows the influence of tribes upon areas. This ancient village is located in the boundaries of old Pargana of Gaha in Sama, Mughal and Kalhora period.

Village Thul
This village is named due to thul (stupa).Tareekh Mazhar-e- Shah Jahani indicates a geographic position and calls it Othal (not to be confused Othal of Balochistan). Yousif Merik has mentioned incorrect pronunciation “Othal” instead of “Thul”. The villages of Kachho, who are in Gaaha Pargano, those are three. One of them is village of Othal, second Aarari and third is village of Kharoti (?) Othal is at a distance of 16 miles from big mountain (Khirthar), Aarari on 24 miles and Kharoti is 40 mile away from Sehwan and 12 miles away from mountain (Merik: 285:1994). Perhaps Yousif Merik had understood village Thul as Othal or mistakenly it had been written as Othal. Near Thul village there is stupa of Buddhist which reveals its antiquity. Due to stupa it would be believed that this village existed in Rai dynasty. Thul village in taluka Johi is very famous due to distinct construction of Stupa (Thul). It is at a distance of 15 kilometers from Johi towards west-southin vicinity of Kachho region.

Village Luhri or Lohri
This most ancient hamlet is situated at a distance of some kilometers from village Chhini towards south-east, on the bank of Lake Manchhar. Here the signs of archeological remains of Amri and Mohan Jo Daro civilizations are found. At this place the symbols of Stone Age also had been explored by Bengali archaeologist Nani Gopal Majumdar (Majumdar: 68: 1933)

Pir Lakho (Lakhio)
Pir Lakho or Lakhio is approximately at a distance of 18 kilometers from Johi town towards south, on the bank of Lake Manchhar. Near this place western Nara canal or Nara valley drain (now R.B.O.D) drains out water into Lake Manchhar. The remains recorded from the site of Pir Lakho included black-on-red pottery, terracotta cone, terracotta figurines of mother godess and of the bull, perforated pottery, terracotta bangles, terracotta beads of long barrel type, terracotta toys, cart-frame, steatite beads of discoid and other shapes, a cubical stone weight and chert flakes. There is, therefore no doubt that this is another station of Indus and must be assigned to the same period as Mohan Jo Daro (Maunder: 79 to 85:1933).

Ghazi alias Gaji Shah Jo Daro
This place is located at some distance towards east of mausoleum of Gaji Shah, on the bank of Nai Naig in Dhaonk valley in surrounding area of Torri, taluka Johi. This site is locally called as Marikhar Daro or Piyaro-Ji-Mari. NG Majumdar and American archeologist Dr: Louis flame has declared the site of Neolithic and chalcolithic period. Majumdar had recorded here the signs of Indus, Amri, Kulli, Mehi, Mesopotamia and other civilizations (Majumdar: 87: 1933).

Kaloi or Ali Murad Daro
This place is located near village Ali Murad Shahani. According to local traditions it is Kaloi-Jo-Daro but NG Majumdar had recorded it as Ali Murad. This site is between Village Ali Murad Shahani and Bahleel Shah in taluka Johi. First Kaloi clan lived here, near Bahleel Shah. Therefore this mound was called Kaloi-Jo-Daro. This is most ancient place. NG Majumdar had noted it as chalcolithic (Majumdarder: 95:1933).

Kotiro Daro
This mound is located at a distance of one kilometer towards north-east of Wahi Pandhi village. It had been recorded as prehistoric site. Here arrow of stones had been discovered. The civilization relating to Amri, Mohan-Jo-Daro, Mesopotamia and Nal are recorded here (Majumdar: 91, 92 :1933). This mound enlightens over the antiquity of village Wahi Pandhi. Probably, Wahi Pandhi village might have been here on this mound before its present location.

Mian Jo Kot
Mian Jo kot is sited on a way to Kafir or Kaaro kot, on the bank of Nai Nalli in Khirthar mountain range, towards east of village Wahi Pandhi, Johi, district Dadu near ancient trade route. This kot is named Mian-Jo-Kot by local people. Some archaeologists state that this kot (fort) is related to Talpur dynasty. History of Sindh, Kalhora period, volume-1 writes: “Mian Naseer Mohammad Kalhoro had built kot (fort) in Nalli (hilly torrent) with the consultation of Wadero Jalal (Mahar: 154: 1996). Whereas, same history in second volume writes about Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro that, “Reaching Sewhan (in 1759 AD) he attacked on Joya and fort of Nalli (Nain Nalli) pass that was shelter of Khosas (Mahar: 530: 1996). Through these references we easily can understand that fort of Nalli existed before the Talpur period. The other historical evidences tell that the fort of Nalli near Wahi Pandhi was built also before the Kalhora dynasty. May be Mian Naseer Mohammad Kalhoro had repaired it with the consultation of Wadero Jalal. Yousif Merik has mentioned the name of this fort in “Tareekh Mazahar-e-Shah Jahani”, as Neroon Kot. It writes that, “Previously it was called village Wahi, an aqueduct (Kareez) flows through the fort. The water of an aqueduct comes through the mountains towards deserted area. It is divided into four brooks or channels. The fields are cultivated on its water. In old time it (Wahi fort) was village of Machhi tribe, but Bakhtiar Beig Turkman attacked and occupied. He named it Akbarabad and gave four channels to four Panhwar Sardars: Mossa, Essa, Daud and Jalal.Shamsher Uzbek named it Neroon Kot (Merik: 20, 163: 1994) Further this book of history writes that second state (Pargano) is Neroon Kot, for its best improvement, it will be better that 20 horsemen (riders) and ten cannonries may be settled. This village is 50 miles away from Sehwan (Merik:: 281: 1994).So it becomes clear that Mian Kot is not built in Talpur dynasty but it already existed in Mughal dynasty. Later, Kalhoras and Talpurs repaired it.

The water of natural springs of mountains flows constantly through Nai Nalli throughout the year. Pipraser is most beautiful fountain or spring near flow of this fresh water watercourse of Nai Nalli. The deepness of water of Pipraser is round about 25 ft. The banks of Pipraser are surrounded by Pipal trees. Therefore it is called Pipraser. Piprasar is a compound word of Sindhi language. Pipra means Pipar or Pipal tree and Sar means a lake, a pond or a spring. The local people tell that people of Hindu and other religions use to come for prayers. When we shall glance at history, we shall know that Pipal is religious tree of Buddhists. According to some religious legends of Buddhism, Buddha was born under Pipal tree and he had also started his preaching under Pipal tree. From Mauryan’s to Brahman’s dynasty the highest influence of Buddhism remained in Sindh. The deserted area of Kachho was centre of Buddhists from village Chhini (Johi) to Shahdadkot and beyond up to Jacobabad and Sibi. Stupas up till now exist here in Kachho region. The pictographs of stupas are chiseled here in to the rocks in hilly area close to Piprasar. So it might have remained a worship place of Buddhists. According to local people, the non- Muslims used to come here at Pipraser for prayers.

Kafir or Kaaro Kot
Kafir or Kaaro Kot is an ancient archaeological site located on a top of the hill on the bank of Nai (rainy stream) Narri or Nalli in Khirthar mountain range towards east of village Wahi Pandhi; Johi District Dadu. This fort is located on a black colored hillock of black mountain (Khirthar is also called black mountain). Thus, this was called Karo Kot (Black Fort) and Kafir refers to non-Muslims. The area of kot or fort is round about 170 square feet. The kot is built, only from east and south edges of the hillock, because these sides were easy to reach at the top of the top of hillock. Whereas the north and west sides are too difficult to cross towards the top of the hill. The walls of the kot are constructed with big bricks made from stone. Now the walls are completely collapsed. In the courtyard of the kot many stones are scattered towards north and west sides. These scattered stones show the collapsed stone made hamlets of prehistoric period. The settlement might have been of Stone Age. The ancient pottery was also found from this site. In view of this pottery, it would be believed that it may refer to first and other phases of Indus civilization. The black-on-red painted pottery referrers to the Amri, Lohum-Jo-daro and Mohan-Jo-daro civilizations. The other terracotta (without any painting) indicates the early phase of Indus civilization. The accurate dating of this site waits for archeological research and observation.

Temple of Johi
Temple of Johi is locally famous as “Qubi of Johi”. Very beautifully and marvelously constructed temple is monument of cultural heritage of district Dadu. Now it is residence of a family belonging to Chandia clan. Close to it, in south, there was house of Hindu priest that has been collapsed and shops have been constructed. For a long time, this house remained residence of civil judge Johi. Near Hindu priest’s house towards west, a big sun-shed was built for travelers. A well was near sun-shed for watering travelers and animals. Later, sun-shed has been demolished. Now, at the place of sun-shed, a shopping centre has been constructed. The pictures of cows, bulls, snake, men, women, gopis and incarnation and manifestations of Hindu deities are frescoed on inner walls of temple. The outer walls are also decorated with fresco paintings. On other hand, idols are made on outer walls. Later, after partition, the idols were destroyed. Some people are of the opinion that this temple belongs to Jainism. But depiction of Shiva, Vishnu, Ghanesha and Krishna is solid evidence for confirming it Hindu temple. According to local legends, before partition a fair had been held at Johi and famous Sindhi singers, Bhagat Kanwar Ram and Master Chandar mostly used to come for performing. Probably, this temple had been constructed in early British period. This temple resembles to Indian and Nepal’s temples. This is unique type of temple and symbol of cultural heritage in this area even of Sindh.

Graveyard of Muridani Jamali
This graveyard is located at distance of 10 kilometers from Johi towards north. The tombs are the best type of construction. Rajputana, mughal type of art of painting was used in the paintings of tombs (Talpur: 163: 1973). The flowers, fruits, vegetables, birds, animals and other scenes are beautifully, painted in the tomb of Dito Khan (Talpur: 163: 1973). Dito or Datal was grandson of Mureed Khan-1 of Mureed Dero, a devotee of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Except this, paintings of other tombs are the best type Sindhian school of art.

Graveyard of Shahan Fakir
Probably Shahan fakir was a follower of Mianwal movement. The graveyard is more ancient. After the burial of Shahan fakir graveyard was known as Shahan Fakir. It is on the top of the hill. The graveyard is spread on area of about an acre. The paintings in the tombs are a wonderful type of art.

Graveyard of Jangu Jamli
Jangu Jamali was disciple of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. This graveyard is sited near village Murad Jamali (Haleli) at some distance on the top of the hill towards west-south. The painting in the tomb of Jangu Jamli as is nice as the paintings in Mir Allahyar’s and Muridan’s graveyard. The care by the offspring of Jangu, the painting is saved from damage. It seems as it has been painted recently.

Graveyard of Manikani Talpurs
The graveyard is located at a distance of 5 kilometers from Drigh Bala towards west-north on the bank of river Gaj. Talpurs came in Kachho region with Mian Naseer Mohammed Kalhoro, who had allotted them Jageers in Kachho from Hetheen (Lower) Drigh to Drigh Bala (Upper). The graveyard is ancient. Its old name is graveyard of Sajan-Ji-Paee but when Mirs had been buried, graveyard became famous after them. Locally this graveyard is known with the name of Mir Allahyar khan Talpur. In this graveyard of Talpurs, Mir Suleman Khan, his sons Mir Hotak Khan and Mir Manik Khan, Mir Allahyar Khan(died in1729 AD) Mir Chhutto Khan, Mir Saindad Khan (three sons of Mir Manik Khan), their family members and others are buried. The construction of toms is very magnificent. The inner parts of walls and domes of tombs are beautifully decorated with paintings. The pictures of man, women, animals and vegetables are painted here. The scene of fighting or battle is beautifully painted. Rajputana, Mughal and other type of art is used in the paintings (Talpur: 163: 1973). Approximately 300 years old this graveyard is beautiful historical visiting point and cultural heritage.

Graveyard of Aararo
Graveyard of Aararo is located at some distance, towards north from village Patt Suleman. Mostly tombs and graves are destroyed. Historically this graveyard belonged to Panhwars. Panhawar’s village Arari or Araro was in this vicinity in Mughals period. Later, Mian Naseer allotted this area to Ganhwar Khan Lund. Now it is graveyard of Ganwarani Lund. The construction of tombs and graves are best type of construction. All tombs and graves are built with thin and slim baked bricks.

Village Naoshahro
Naosharo is a name of an area of Kachho near Aararo. There were 9 villages in this surrounding area in the period of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro; therefore it is called Naoshahro, means nine villages. Feroz Veerar, a main commander of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro belonged to this area. Later, he shifted and settled in Sahati Pargano and established a new village “Nashahro Feroz”, which is now a district of Sindh.

Village Haji Khan
This village had been established by Haji Khan Leghari. He had born in 6th generation of Suhrab Kachhi leghari, who was the devotee of Mian Naseer Kalhoro. After Suhrab and his son Alam, Maqsoodo became Sardar of clan. This legacy went to Gul Muhammad of Patt. Haji Khan Laghari and Gul Mohammad Laghari were contemporary period. Haji Khan got influence in late Talpur period and early British period. He became Sardar of tribe and settled at his established village Haji Khan (Husain Badshah: 472: 2005)

Temple of Veernath
Veernath is on a way to Borari, at a distance of 4 to 5 kilometers from Khairpur Nathan shah. Professor Muhammad Ibrahim Jatoi writes that here is a mausoleum of saint Veernath. From period of British government, it was under the possession of Hindu community. The birth and death year of saint Veernath is unknown. His title is told Sir Veer Jogi (yogi) Nath. Recently some people have begun to call him Veeral Shah. Near it, there is a village which is called village Veeral. Arain tribe lives here in this village. Further he says, Hindus had constructed worship place here. Before partition Hindus had settled people for caring and cleanness. Their names were with suffix of Nath, such as Ganga Nath, Jamna Nath and Beja Nath. Beja Nath was their head” (Jatoi: 5: 2003)
From “Nath” the concept is clear that this place belongs to followers of Guru Gorakhnath. In Indian religions there is no tradition of burial. Hindu does not bury their dead bodies or corpse. But at some places the followers of Guru Gorakhnath have constructed tombs over its sitting places, where he spent time in mediation. So this is not a mausoleum of Veernath but this is a temple of Veernath, who might have been the head or saint of those people, which Professor Muhammad Ibrahim have cited. Later, the village and temple became famous in this area as Veernath. Near Veernath’s temple, the tomb might have been built according to concept of mediation place of Guru Gorakhnath. Therefore we must glance at history.
Gorakshanath (also known as Gorakhnath) was an 11th to 12th century. Hindu Nath yogi, connected to Shaivism as one of the two most important disciples of Matsyendranath, the other being Caurangi. There are varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakshanath. All name Adinath and Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, who was himself the direct teacher of Gorakshanath.
The Nath tradition underwent its greatest expansion during the time of Gorakshanath. He produced a number of writings and even today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported that it was Gorakshanath who wrote the first book on Laya yoga. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakshanath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine (tomb) of Gorakshanath resides at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about a kilometer from Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, India.
Traditionally, Guru Gorakshanath is believed to have been born sometime in the 8th century, whereas some believe it to be anytime from 8th century to several centuries later. He traveled widely across the Indian subcontinent, and accounts about him are found in some forms or others several places including Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal, Assam, Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka and even Sri Lanka (Wikipedia: wed site)
Somany remains of Shivism are lying in Dadu district.We would firmly say that Veernath blongs to Guru Gorakhnath and Shivism. The tomb had been constructed over a place, according to thought of mediation place of Gorakhnath. Now this cultural place is in annihilated position.
Lohum-Jo-Daro is most ancient site of Sindh. It is located at the smallest distance from Piyaro village station. A historicl village Pat is also near it. Chikan Dhandh or Chikan Lake (Now Rukan Lake) is not far from Lohum-Jo-Daro. NG Majumdar had excavated here in British period. He explored the signs of chalcolithic period and Indus civilization. He found terracotta resembling to Amri, Mohan-Jo-Daro and Jhukar-jo-Daro civilization (Majumdar: 49, 50: 1933). Now this site has been demolished and disappeared.
Village Pat Sharif
Pat is very ancient and recorded as an old village of education and literacy in Dadu district. This village exists before the Mughals and Arghuns dynasties but historically it had been mentioned from Mogal’s and Arghun’s period. How and when its name became famous as Pat? It is too difficult to say certainly. Here is a village Khat near village Pat. Khat and Pat are two words of Sindhi language. Khat means a hole or passage made in wall or earth and word pat means erosion by rain or stream of water. Both villages are near Indus River. Except this the ancient stream of River Gaj drained out here near Khat and Pat. Probably, Pat had been named due to erosion, either of River Indus or Nai Gaj. However, this village has been remaining a centre of Islamic education since mughals and Arghuns era. Tuhfat-ul-Kiram has mentioned that Pat is a village in surroundings of Sehwan division. Hyder Harvi came from his country in the days of Shah Hassan Baig and lived in this village forever and died in this village (Qani’a: 296: 2004).
Manak Taro or Manak Daro
Historically it has been recorded as an ancient place of Soomera period. History of Sindh is puzzled or confused regarding the actual name of this place. Basic reason of confusion is pronunciation of name. The foreigner historians, who wrote in Persian or other foreign languages, are sources material of history of Sindh. Being foreigners, they did mistakes in the pronunciation of names of many local persons, places and villages of Sindh. This became the main cause of confusion. Secondly, the translators are responsible in this regard. They have translated without any possible research regarding language and background of name or its pronunciation. Therefore so many names of places or persons are still puzzled. I would not like to go in details. Here I shall give example only about the name of this ancient place. The name of this place is given in the books of history in Sindhi, as Manaktaro (68), Mangtaro, and Mankatharo. These are strange names or pronunciations. Mr Mohammad Urs “Azhar” Solangi has given a name Man-kata Darah with reference of Tuhfat-ul-Kiram Persian version (publication), on page 62 (Solangi: 572: 2006). This given name denotes as Manak Daro. Most probably, the correct name of this site is Manak-Jo-Daro of Manak Daro which is near perception and acceptation. It would be believed that first Manak (may be Solangi) lived here and place was called Manak Daro and later, Jesar Machhi Solangi (Solangi) settled at this place or village.
Village Phaka
Village Phaka is an ancient village of Dadu district. It existed in Kalhora period near Khudabad, a first capital town of Kalhora dynasty. Mir Ali Sher Qani’a writes that Phaka is famous village; Sayed Hassan Shah Bhukhari belonged to this village, who was a disinterested, respectable and venerated religious personality (Qani’a: 301L 2004)
Returning from Qalat Balochistan, Mian yar Mohammad Kalkhoro settled at Gaha village. He collected disciples and re-activated Mianwal Movebment. He brought under control many villages of the area and re-established his power. Afterward, he receiving title of “Khudayar Khan” he settled at Shikarpur Panhwarki and renamed it as Khudabad, which became the first capital town of Kalhora dynasty. Khudabad remained as central town of Kalhora dynasty from 1701 to 1728. Mr. Ghulam Rasool Mahar has portrayed the beauty, area and its location with the references of other historians in “Tareekh Sindh: Kalhora Period. He writes that Khudabad was very prosperous and beautiful town of Kalhora dynasty having wide and good bazzars. It was extended over a big area including its gardens. Its gardens were very humorous. The different trees of fruits and plants of flowers were in the gardens. The higher houses were near gardens. A magnificent residence of rulers was in the centre of the town. A beautiful garden was also located at the centre of town. Most probably, Khudabad remained affluent up to early period of Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhoro. When Mian Noor Muhammad changed his capital town, dignity of Khudabad decreased. During conflict between Kalhoras and Talpurs Khudabad was burnt by Talpurs. From 1701 to 1768 this town remained prosperous. But, later 1768 its prosperity diminished. In Talpur’s period it became wholly shattered. Now only a little village exists along Indus Highway at a distance of 10 kilometers from Dadu towards south

Jamia Mosque of Khudabad
The base of Jamia mosque of Khudabad was laid by Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro and its work was completed by Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. The building of Jamia Mosque of Khudabad is divided in to two parts or portions. The measurement of its one portion is 80 ft in length and 21 ft in width while its Second portion is 80 ft in length and 25 ft in width. Its height has been noted about 34 ft. The walls of Jamia Mosque Khudabad are beautifully and magnificently decorated with Mughal and Islamic art of painting. Several floral, geometrical designs of art of painting including calligraphy and arabesque are decorated on walls of Jamia Mosque of Khudabad.

Graveyard of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro

Graveyard of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro is spread over an area of nearly acre. It is at a distance of about 4 kilometers from present village Khudabad towars west in Deh Mian Yar Muhammad of Taluka Dadu. He received his legacy after the martyrdom of his elder brother Mian Deen Mohammad Kalhoro in about 1700 or 1699 AD. He died in 1719 AD and buried in this graveyard. The tomb over his burial place was built by Min Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. The construction of the tomb of Mian Yar Mohammad Kalhoro is the best example of architecture of Kalhora period. The walls of tomb of Mian Yar Muhammad were wonderfully decorated but now have been whitewashed. In courtyard of tomb of other royal are constructed. Close to his tomb a mosque is situated which was built by Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoros. In this graveyard, Magio Jatoi, Shadad Fakir Langah, Daud Fakir Kumbhar and others are buried.
Graveyard of Admani Laghari
The graveyard of Admani Laghari is situated at asome distance from village Barri towards north-west in area of Kachho. Admani Lagharis were offspring of Adam Khan Laghari who was main disciple of Mian Naseer Muahammad Kalhoro. Walls of many tombs in this graveyard are decorated with Mughal and Rajput art of painting.
Graveyard of Ahdi Fakir
The big graveyard of Ahdi Fakir is situated at a distance of 3 kilometers from village Peeral Khan Shahani, on a high hillock. Walls of tomb of Ahadi Fakir are bedecked with marvelous paintings.
Graveyard of Shahak Shahani
The graveyard of Shahak Fakir Shahani is sited near Chhini at short distance toward west-south on hill top. Shahak Fakir Shahani and his son Sahab Fakir were followers of Mianwal Movement. Shahani and Rustamanis are buried herein graveyard, Walls of tomb of Sahab Fakir are festooned with best paintings.
Graveyard of Shahdad Khoso
The cemetery of Shahdad Khoso is sited on hilltop close to village Chhini towards south. Shahdad Khoso was main devotee of Mianwal Movement His tomb is adorned with best wall paintings. In this necropolis very ancient canopies are built with large carved stone slabs.
Graveyard of Ali Murad Shahani
Ali Murad Shahani was head of his tribe who is buried in this burial ground. Walls of tombs of Ali Murad Shahani and his relative Haibat Khan Shahani are ornamented with murals.
Graveyard of Pir Gaji Shah
Gaji Shah was commander and main disciple of Mianwal Movement. Many Tajars, canopies and tombs were in this cemetery which has become disappeared. Gaji Shah is buried in courtyard of a mosque. His canopy is best instance of architecture. The walls of mosque were festooned with murals which have been vanished due to renovation.
Graveyard of Bakhir Jamali
This necropolis is situated near village Bakhar Jamali towards west along foothills. Bakhar Fakir Jamali was devotee of Mianwal Movement. The walls of his tombs are adorned with beautiful wall paintings.
Graveyard of Wachho Patt
Wachho was Babar and main disciple of Mianwal Movement. He had been allotted lands by Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro in this area which became famous as Wachho Patt. He was relative of Jado Shaheed Babar. This burial place is situated near Mureed Dero towards east. Mostly tombs are on verge of destruction. Walls of tombs are ornamented with murals.
Graveyard of Dato laghari
Dato Fakir Laghari was follower of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. His cemetery is situated near Jalab Dero towards south. The walls of tombs are adorned with beautiful wall paintings.
Graveyard of Mureed Dero
Mureed-1 Jamali was commander of Mianwal Movement during the leadership of Mian Naseer Kalhoro. He lived and died here at his village. The necropolis is situated at some distance from Mureed Dero towards north. The walls of tombs are decorated with wall paintings.
Graveyard of Hairo Khan
Hairo Khan Laghari was massive head of Laghari clan. The cemetery is situated close to village Hairo Khan towards west-south. Murals are adorned on walls of the tombs.
Graveyard of Rawat Fakir
This necropolis is sited at a distance of 4 kilometers from village Haji Khan towards north. It is believed that Rawat Fakir was Khoso by caste but during the severe dispute between Khosa tribe in Kachho, he and his relatives changed their caste as Laghari. However, mostly the walls of tombs are ornamented with murals.
Graveyard of Lashkar Laghari
Lashkar Khan Laghari was related to Mianwal Movement. He is buried in this graveyard which is close to village Rajo Dero towards west near grave of recently buried Syed Kahar Shah. The walls of tombs are decorated with paintings.
Graveyard of Shadan
The necropolis of Shadan village which is famous as Shaheedan-Jo-Qabarustan, is located near village Shadan, in area of Kachho. The walls of all tombs are festooned with murals.
Graveyard of Guhram Gadehi
The burial place of Guhram Gadehi is located in taluka K.N Shah in Kachho, towards north of K.N Shah. He was disciple of Mianwal Movement. Walls of all tombs are adorned with beautiful wall paintings.
Graveyard of Shah Inayat Dandu
The cemetery of Shah Inayat Dandu is situated near village Garhi and mosque of Garhi towards west-south in taluka K.N Shah. Walls of a tomb of Laghari’s are decorated with paintings.
Graveyard of Syed jo Goth
Graveyard of Syed-jo-Goth is situated in taluka Mehar towards west of Mehar town. Walls of tomb in this burial ground are ornamented with paintings.
Graveyard of Yaro Redhar
The graveyard of Yaro redhar is situated on bank of Nai Takki. It is at a distance of about 8 kilometers from Wahi Pandhi towards north. Yaro Fakir alias Yaro Reddhar (shepherd) was disciple of Mianwal Movement. Walls of tomb of Yaro Redhar were adorned with paintings but due to renovation all paintings are vanished.
Books and references
1, Gorakhnath, Dadu Dayal,
2, Abdul Jabar Junejo, Sindhi, Adab Ji Mukhtasir Tarikh, Roshni Publication, 1994 p- 265
3, Dhani Bux Magsi, Dadu Munhjoon Yadoon, Kachho publication, 2005, p:-480-81
4, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, P- 80
5, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p- 123
6, Same reference P-60
7, Same reference P- 123
8, Same reference P-64, 219, 239
9, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-154
10, Ghulam Mohammad Lakho, Sindh jo Tarikhi aen Tahqiqi Jaizo, Marae sangat Karachi, 1997, p-77
11, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, P- 80
12, Rahimdad Maulai Shedai, Janat ul Sindh, Sindhica Academy Karachi, 2000. P-308
13, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p-123
14, Same reference P-171
15, Same reference P-195
16, Same reference P-197
17, Same reference P-302
18, Same reference P-303
19, Same reference
20, Same reference P-191
21, Same reference P-304, 305
22, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-190
23, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p-283
24, Same Reference, p-34
25, Same Reference, p-286
26, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-190
27, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p-32
28, Same Reference, p-239
29, Same Reference, p-285
30, Same Reference p-201
31, Same Reference, p-161
32, Same reference, p- 201
33, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-154
34, Same Refrence
35, NG Majumdar, Explorations in Sindh, Indus Publication Karachi, 1933, p-86
36, Husain Badshah, Sindh mein Jagiru ji Tarikh, Roshni Publication, 2005, p-502
37, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-170
38, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p-95

39, Same reference, p-242

40, Same reference, p-245
41, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-190
42, Naun Mal, Remembrance (Yadgiriyon), Sindhi Adabi Board, 1996, p-48
43, Same reference, p-50
44, Sita,
45, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, p-201
46, Gh: Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Sindh, Kalhora period, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996,p-154
47, Same Refrence, p-159
48, Mir Mohammad Bux Talpur, Johi mein Talpuran Ja Muqbara, Quarterly Mihran, 1973, p-161
49, Same reference
50, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, page: 285
51, NG Majumdar, Explorations in Sindh, Indus Publication Karachi, 1933, page: 68
52, Same reference, p-79 to 85
53, Same reference, p-87

54, Same reference, p-95

55, Same reference, p-91, 92

56, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-1, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-154

57, Ghulum Rasool Mahar, Tarikh Kalhora, v-2, Culture department Sindh, 1996, p-530

58, Yousif Merik, Mazhar e Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, page: 20, 163
59, Same reference p-281
60, Mir Mohammad Bux Talpur, Johi mein Talpuran Ja Muqbara, Quarterly Mihran, 1973, 163
61, Same reference
62, Same reference
63, Husain Badshah, Sindh mein Jagiru ji Tarikh, Roshni Publication, 2005, p-472
64, Prof: Mohammad Ibrahim, Salari magazine, Govt: College KN Shah, 2003, p-5
65, Guru Gorakhnath,
66, NG Majumdar Explorations in Sindh, Indus Publication Karachi, 1933, p-49, 51

67, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, p-296

68, Rahimdad Maulai Shedai, Janat ul Sindh, Sindhica Academy Karachi, 2000. p-218

69, Muhammad Urs, Azhar Solangi, Dadu Talka Jo Mazi aen Hal. 2006, p- 472

70, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, p-301


11 thoughts on “Ancient sites, towns and villages

  1. Superb work sir, congrats, kindly send your cell number. Sain we are compiling an online encyclopedia in english regarding Sindh.
    I want to talk to you and want to include your introduction in Sindhipedia.Thanx

  2. Khudabad (Self Developed ) was built in 1553 AD by Sindhi Sonara (Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar ) which now are famous in India as Khudabadi Sonara and Khudabadi Amils. Also there is Khudabadi Sonara Community Center in Bani Park, Jaipur, India.

    • Thanks lot for such information but it needs solid citation. May kindly be pleased to provide references of book or authentic website as I can be able to include information. Furthermore please give more details.

  3. History

    The Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar developed the empty land on the banks of the Sindhu, eventually naming it Khud-Abad (Self-Development), around 1351 AD. This development drew the attention of other Sindhi communities to the extent that the Governor of Sindh, Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty became aware of it and chose to make it his permanent settlement.

    Around 1710 AD Yar Muhammad Kalhoro along with his followers, won over Khud-Abad from the Panhwar. Between 1718 and 1719, Mian Yar Muhammad died and he was buried there.After his death when Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhoro became the ruler of Sindh (17219–1755) he chose Khud-Abad as his capital and renamed it as Khudabad (City of God). He started developing the place rapidly as a well planned city, which led to many Amils and Bhaibands migrating there for employment and trade. He also built a beautiful Jamia Musjid. Khudabad was capital of Sindh between 1719 and 1768 when replaced with Hyderabad, Sindh.

    The Khudabadi script was invented by Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar community. The members of the Swarnakar community, while residing in Khudabad, around 1750, felt it necessary to invent a very simple script so that they can send written messages to their relations, who were living far away from them in their own home towns. This necessity mothered the invention/creation of a new script. The new script had no vowels and to be written from left to right (like Sanskrit) and continued to be in use for very long period of time among Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar. Due to its simplicity, the use of this script spread very quickly and got acceptance in other sindhi communities, for sending written communications. Because it was originated from Khudabad, it was called Khudabadi script.

    Around 1750, most of Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar (Khudabadi Sonara) in Khudabad, used to supply their gold ornament products to Seth Sanwalmal (non Khudabadi Sonara), who was offering favourable terms of payments and logistic facilities. He was a very famous and prosperous trader, jeweler and sheriff (banker). He had his business interests in Khudabad, Sukkur, Kotri, Thatta and Keti Bunder, all of them were important trading centers of Sindh in those days. Seth Sanwalmal was Suryavanshi, Sindhi lohana and his ancestor “Rajmal” fought for Raja Daharsen, during the year 711 Arab invasions and laid down his life. His children along with other Hindus left Sindh for safer grounds, after the battle was lost. After time immemorial, they returned to Sindh during Kalhora reign and lived in Khudabad. Seth Sanwalmal died in 1773, leaving behind his four sons, Chhatomal, Lakhimal, Bharomal and Tolomal. The descendents of Bharomal and Lakhimal are now known as Bharvani and Lakhiani respectively. There also lived Seth Mahtabrai, whose ancestors were goldsmiths and lived at Nariganj in District Dhadhar. They worshipped the Goddess Kali Mata. Due to some mis-understandings/dispute with Muslims, they left Nariganj and migrated first to Bakhar in Sindh and later to Khudabad. There also lived Punwani’s and Gulrajani’s whose ancestors were goldsmiths and were devotees of Goddess Kali Mata. There is no information if ancestors of Seth Mahtabrai, Punwani’s and Gulrajani’s, being devotees of Goddess Kali Mata and being goldsmith, were linked with Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar (Khudabadi Sonaras) in past.

    In 1755, Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhoro died and was buried in a tomb, built by him before his death, about a kilometre from Khudabad City. Those clubs have been kept in the tomb of Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhoro. People used to come to tomb for worship and offer sticks as symbols of respect. Many a times, Hindus perform mundane ceremony of their children there and offer sticks as rituals. It is also said that people still find very old coins in the ruins of Khudabad city. Around 1908, a charcoal seller on his horse passed through Khudabad and collided with a wall of an old building and saw some silver coins. With the help of some confidential labourers he found many old silver coins worth about thirteen thousand rupees, which he kept with himself. After some time, this mystery leaked out and he was charged under Indian Treasure-Trove Act in the court of Resident Magistrate of Dadu. After the death of Mian Noor Mohammad, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro’s claim to rule was challenged by his brothers Muradyab Khan and Attar Khan. The latter was able to obtain Sanad (Authority to Rule) from Ahmed Shah Durrani and so Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro vacated the seat in his favour. Mian Attar Khan could not manage the state of affairs. Taking advantage of political uncertainty, Khosas looted Hindus as well as Muslims and burnt the Khudabad city down by tying fire crackers with the feet of birds and let fly them throughout the city after setting fire the fire crackers. Therefore, in 1759, the Baloach Chiefs re-incarnated Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, who defeated his two brothers and assumed the throne. He started, once again, the settlement of Khudabad on nearby new lands, by the new course of the river Indus, commendably.

    Fateh Ali Khan (Talpur) defeated the Kalhora (Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhora) in 1783 and took over as the new ruler of Sindh. Khudabad City continued to remain his capital till it was inundated by river Sindhu in 1789 and then Mir Fateh Ali Khan chose Hyderabad, Sindh (old Nayrun Kot) as his capital. The change of capital no doubt induced a large number of the population of Khudabad including Sonaras, Amils and Bhaibands to migrate to the new seat of royalty. Those groups retained the term Khudabadi in the names of their communities as an identifier of origin. And Khudabad city’s decline may be said to have commenced from that date. By the year 1800, the majority of Sonaras living in other parts of Sindh had migrated to Hyderabad

  4. Dear Sir,
    Information about Village Theba Mehar Taluka is missing. Pls share details/Information about the people of Theba living before partition and the History of the village Theba.

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