Mianwal Movement

Mainwal Movement in Dadu

By: Aiz Kingrani

For their independence, peace and prosperity and ownership of their resources and right of the indigenous rule, people of Sindh have made huge efforts. Some times the sword of foreign dominance and slavery had been hanging over their heads and at some intervals they have lived in peaceful atmosphere. Some people possessing historical consciousness and enlightenment must have noted that people of Sindh never have had fought for their collective rights and preservation of the independence of their homeland. They have sacrificed their lives under the tribal and group’s interests but collectively all tribes never had untied against the foreign dominance. The basic reason for the division among the people of Sindh is that they had been thrown into the quagmire of tribalism. By calling a tribe as a nation they were kept away from the collective national thinking. This impression had been entrenched in the sub consciousness of the tribes and remains entrenched to this day. Till to date not non-Sindhi, but person from other tribe remains outsider for the people of other tribe. Therefore for the centuries the collective thinking hadn’t taken roots among the people of Sindh. The study of history of Sindh supports the fact that no war had been fought for the autonomy, solidarity and protection of the productive resources of Sindh. However the martial tribes stood like rocks in the case of fierce foreign attacks. There are few examples which show that there had been some collective resistances. In this regard first example is the movement of martyred Makhdom Bilawal.

Apparently this was not an untied and disciplined movement but the strategy Makhdom Bilwal adopted by collecting his dispels and patriotic Sindhies ie. Makdom Bilawal was, no doubt a movement in his person     after the martyrdom of Makhdom Bilawal that fervor became dormant. After that Main Adam Shah Kalhro appears on the scene that rose on the strength of Spiritual leadership. That movement became known as the Mainwal Tahereek (Movement). Abdul Raheem Khan –e- Khanan at the time of his invasion of Thatta came to Main Adam Shah for seeking his blessing. On that occasion Khabar Abro taking advantage of the situation demanded Chandki territory from Mirza. Mirza Khan Khanan accepted his request.  After getting the fertile area like Chandki, the followers of Main got influence and strength. They started harassing   the surrounding landlords (1) the purpose of seeking landlordism was motivated from the necessity of making food and accommodation arrangement for the large gathering of followers whose number continued swelling. That he got large treks of land to feed and accommodate his followers. (2)At this juncture the landlords of Chandki territory complained to the ruler of Multan against Main. Resultantly the Mughal soldiers arrested Main sahib and took him to Multan (3). The Mainwal Movement under the leadership of Main Adam Shah Kalhoro seems active and disciplined. After seeking the territory of Chandka, followers of the Main Sahib got social and financial strength. The growing strength and influence of the followers of Main sahib was not   liked by the local landlords and rulers. Therefore they presented the false numbers of the flowers of Main Sahib and mislead the rulers.   In this way the martyrdom of the Main Sahib happened (4). There are different versions about the martyrdom of Main Adam, however majority is of the opinion that   his martyrdom happened in the prison of Nawab of Bakhar in Multan. After the martyrdom of Main Adam his son Daud assumed the government. Sayed Ali Muhammad Rashidi notes an important point in the connection of the Kalhora era that martyrdom of Mian Daud, father of Adam Shah, on the instigation of the landlords was an open injustice on the part of the arrogant and proud Nawab of Bakhar.  A large section of Sindhis became sympathetic to Main Sahib, because they considered the father of main sahib as a victim (5). It is also presumed that the martyrdom of Main Adam Shah infused more enthusiasm.  His blood worked as water to the crop of Mainwal Movement. And the scale of the movement continued to expend and hatred against the Muhgals increased. No historical facts have appeared to support the contention that there had been protests or resistance by the workers of Mainwal Movement.  But in the light of above mentioned statement  it can be speculated that there might  had been protest or resistance but keeping in view the sensitivity of the situation the Muhgals might had  avoided taking further action against the Movement . Main Daud assumed the leadership of the movement but history is silent about him. After the demise of Main Daud, Mian Alias replaced his father (6). He made more efforts than his father and grandfather to widen the circle of his followers and seek more lands (7). After Mian Alias the leadership of Mainwal Movement shifted to Mian Shahul. During his period there occurred increase in his followers and landownership (8).  From the period of Main Adam Shah to Mian Shah Ali Alias Shahul Muhammad there are historical facts about the increase in followers. The conspiracies of government and antagonism of Landlords against the movement as well as the martyrdoms of the Kalhora rulers did not result in the suppression or weakening of the Mainwal Movement. Movement continued to expend and grow day by day. When, Main Shahul Muhammad assumed the Gadi (spiritual position) of his forefathers, the influence of his followers increased manifold then before (9). As spiritual leaders he even surpassed his predecessors and the opponent landlords and government officials became jealous to the growing popularity of Mainwal Movement under his leadership (10). The local landlords who backed Mughal Rulers were very much scared from the active role and growing fame of Mian Naseer Muhammad. Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro is the first person in Kalhora dynasty whose status is historically authentic (11). The Muhgals noticed the movement of Main Naseer Muhammad and due to pressure he migrated several times and came to live permanently where the territory belonged to Chenah (Chana) caste/Tribe. (12)In this area where on the one side there was a mountain and on the other side flowed the water of Nain Gaj. He established Ghari town (now situated in KN Shah Taluka of Dadu District) (13) He occupied Chhinni territory (in District Dadu) and after collecting large number of people started uprising. (14) This area belonged to Mir Panhwar, a chieftain of Panhwar tribe (15). He staged several surprise attacks on the territories of Bakhar and Sewistan and brought under occupation many territories and killed several government officials. Muhabat Khan the ruler of the Bakhar and Mirza Khan the ruler of Sibi made many attempts and many battles were fought to drive away Main but they saw no opportunity in achieving their objective and in the meanwhile the prince Muezudin (the ruler of Multan) under the orders of Aurangzeb fought the battle with Main Sahib and arrested him (16). According to Janatul Sindh Main sahib escaped to the regaistan (desert) in the dead of night and  then  in the result of the  conspiracy of the Mir Khan and his uncle Muhabat Khan,[Mian Sahib]  was arrested and for some time remained house arrested  in the prison of the  Alamgiri Tarang (17). Main Sahib was sent as prisoner from Dehli to Gawaliar, in the way finding the opportunity ran away with his two or three colleagues (18).  Thus it becomes evident that Main sahib was arrested along with his supporters and suffered the torments of jail along with his colleagues. And after absconding or being released from jail he is not seen remaining silent or inactive.  Because after his return he seems engaged in, from taking the provinces on contracting and occupying some with the support of fakirs (dispels). Main Sahib established a caretaker government of fakirs in the period of 25 years and passed away in 1692(19). After the natural death of Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro the leadership of movement went to his elder son Mian Deen Muhammad Kalhoro. But the responsibility of other matters of the movement remained the prerogative of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro.  In the stewardship of Main Deen Muhammad Mainwal Movement remained active.  Main Naseer Muhammad Called himself Fakirs and thus the workers of Mainwal movement also called themselves fakirs.  During the time of Main Deen Muhammad they were known with the title of Sirai (20). In this period the supporters of Mughals were local landlords and Panhwars were more influential among them. (21) And on the instigation of them (Panhwars) Prince Muezudin, ruler of Multan attacked Sindh to smash the strength of Main Deen Muhammad (22).

Main Deen Muhammad sensing the circumstances had accord with them but the enthusiasm and fighting mentality of the fakirs disrupted the reconciliatory accord.  We believe that this enthusiastic behavior of Fakirs was motivated by their sincere dedication to the cause of Mianwal Movement Maqsood Fakir the brother of Baharo Shah when saw that the army of Prince Muezudin is returning without any fight and without display of the bravery of theirs, he than started fierce fighting with them between the location of Uch and Mathelo without the permission of Main Deen Muhammad. Reacting violently prince retuned and started brutal masare and blood shed. Seeing no option Mian Deen Muhammad surrendered before the prince in Sehwan. Prince took him to Multan.(24) and sent other group of army to arrest the remaining men of Main Deen Muhammad.  But Mian Yar Muhammad fought the Army of Prince at edge of Gaj (25). Main Yar Muhammad lacking the power and force to continue the battle went to Kalat. Mian Deen Muhammad was martyred in Multan. Mainwal movement continued fighting against the dominance of Mughal Sultanate till the battle of Khor. After the battle of Khor due to exile of Mian Yar Muhammad and the sacrifice of Main Deen Muhammad the strength of the movement has tempered down but it hadn’t gone into background either.

If this movement was not for the complete freedom of Sindh or against the exploitation of the productive resources of Sindh but eat least the leaders and workers of this movement raised the banner of rebellion against the Mughal Empire. The poor class formed the majority of the movement’s manpower. In the result of this historical fight the Kalhora reached the position of Rulers.

From Naseer Muhammad to the return of Mian Yar Muhammad form Kalat,  The area of Dadu District remained epicenter of the of Mainwal movement. There are important reasons from that background but here only the reference of Jam chano or Muhammad Cheno Khan is suffice Muhammad Cheni Khan was son of Bahlo or Baheel (Bahleel) and in his era the Kalhora Dynasty got period of highest honor and   greatness. (26) Though historically the reference about the information on the life of Muhammad Cheno Khan might be weak but some facts throw light on his personality. His period has been referred 1920. (27)  Took along himself seven chieftains to the ruler of Multan and become the leader of all chieftains. (28) Ruler of Multan besides granting Jageer (large land holding) also conferred the tile of Jam upon Him. (29)History is silent who these above mentioned seven Ranas (leaders) where. What was logic behind the fact of going along with seven leaders? It looks that these sradars belonged to the seven states belonging to Chana which were spread from Manchar to Jacobabad. And they might have gone to get selected one chief sardar (leader) among themselves and get letter of official reorganization from the ruler of Multan. Ruler might had after conferring the Title of Jam had granted the right of ruler to Muhammad Chana, because after returning from Multan Muhammad Chena had built a town at some distance in the west of Sewstan (Sewhan) and named this new town as Jhangara Bajara (30). Thus started the beginning of his rule and slowly and gradually he continued to expand his rule. He brought Khanbhat Territory under his rule; brought seven Ranas from Koraja, Sahta and Chana etc under his submissiveness .(31) Johi  and Manchar areas of Dadu Remained focal Point in the areas of their influence and power  due to their proximity  with Jhangara Bajara. That is the reason that Kalhora made Dadu their stronghold. From Mian Naseer Muhammad to Mian Deen Muhammad The area of Dadu assumed central importance. Many of their military commanders and elderly revered personalities belonged to this area and are laid to rest in this area. The slogan of Mainwal movement was Allah Tohaar. Their social and cultural symbols used to be black rug and surndo for arranging music parties for stimulating of war hysteria.

Today all these three things have lost their purpose. Now these symbols are used on the mausoleums of saints for extracting Jins (Ghosts).

Some people are surprised on some customs of Mainwal movement and its workers.  Tribes belonging to Mainwal movement were different from other tribes, they used to avoid and considered a taboo and awkward of eating, drinking and sitting and even shaking hands with the most of other tribes.

They were not using the utensils of non Mainwal Movement tribes/people. Certainly Mainwal Fakirs used to break the social relation with other tribes. In this connection it can be said that Mainwal Fakirs deemed it fit to break social relations with those tribes who were opponents and bitter enemies of the leaders of Mainwal movement and were supporters of Muhgals rulers. The people belonging to Mainwal movement might have sensed the threat from those tribes therefore they would have kept themselves aloof by not socially mingling with them. But afterward this custom gave birth to the upper lower class divide which continued till 1970s but now it has ended.

Center has been called circle for the meeting, prayer and consultation of Fakirs. Here arrangement must have been made for the training of Mainwal workers and their related/ sympathizers. This circle used to be sacred place.  There is saying in Sindh that kadh Kukar Dairay maan (take the cock from circle). There used to be such one circle in Dadu, that circle is present in the name of Nangar Dario. To recite aazi for remaining sincere and dedicated to any battle campaign is also part of the custom of Mainwal movement. Mainwal movement is such a movement when its leaders laid the foundation of indigenous rule.

This movement can be counted as first movement which due to the sacrifices of its workers achieved success. Many of commanders of the movement belonged to Dadu but not enough information about them is available nor could be sought.  Information about their life and role can only be sought through legends. The reason for non availability of authentic historical information about the commanders and workers of the movement can be given that perhaps at that time they had not enjoyed the popularity. However at local level they commanded high degree of popularity and fame. Therefore brief description of their life is given bellow

Gazi Shah alias Gaji Shah

Gazi Shah Alias Gaji Shah is locally popular as respected and revered saint and elderly figure. According to one legend he entered in the womb of the sister of Piyaro Khoso miraculously with the blessing of a saint namely Syed Ahmed Shah. This saying seems based on faith/belief in my view this saying has nothing to do with facts or logic.
According to another saying, Gazi Shah is Sayed and his father’s name is referred Sayed Ahmed Shah. For this legend also neither any historically backed logical reference nor is any family biographic sketch available.
According to third legend Gazi shah was Khoso and his father’s name was Ahmed. Piyaro Khoso was his real Maternal Uncle whose original residence was area of Johi in Dadu. But during the period of Mian Naseer Muhammad he migrated to tori area of Kachho due to tribal feud and started living there. Sings of his Mari (building) are standing near the monuments of Gaji Shah, in the west south area near Chhinni surrounded by mountains in Nain Naig Valley. As there is no authentic proof of the family background of this saint therefore forming an opinion on his family background on the basis of fogged mythologies is extremely difficult. On the basis of some ground realities an opinion can be built.
Care takers of Dargah of Gaji shah and Fakirs all belong to Khosa tribe. They call themselves faqeers and to this day they have followers in north, center and Lar (south of Sindh) parts of Sindh. Khosa Faqeers go to their followers as spiritual healers and get from them the share or amount called in local parlance dan or pugar. Besides Sindh their following is spread to Punjab. Mother of Gaji shah breastfed Dilshad Faqeer Khoso and earned his livelihood by keeping livestock in Kachho. Dilshad was was killed by another sub tribe of Khosa. Despite a tribal settlement of this murder, Piyaro Khoso got murdered a man namely Burfat from the opponent tribe as the revenge of Dilshad Faqeer. Resultantly the intera-tribal feud among Khosas intensified and spread far and wide rustling in bloodshed on large scale. As a result piyaro Khoso had to leave the a
In the light of above mentioned to points the reference of Gaji Shah or Gazi Shah to his Sayed origin becomes weak and doubtful. His half brother Dishad Faqeer of whom the mother of Gaji Shah breast feed belonged to Khosa Tribe. It looks improbable that a Sayed family could have breastfeed to a non Sayed infant. If we suppose for the sake of argument that it was factual then still in the feud between Khosa on the murder of one Dilshad no mention of any Syed is found, only Gaji Shah is seen active. Moreover why khosa tribes took over and continue to take care of the spiritual position instead of Sayed if Gaji Shah was Sayed. Therefore, It can be said with certainty that Gaji Shah Belongs to Khosa Tribe, due to his bravery and piousness people respected and revered him. Not only had the people of his tribe but those from other tribes also accorded high status to him. He even spiritually surpassed his spiritual leader Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro due to his above mention qualities.
Main Naseer Muhammad respected Gaji Shah very much Gaji Shah entered in the following of Main Naseer Ahmed when latter occupied Chhinni territory. When Gaji Shah proved his worth as a successful commander and sincere and dedicated worker of Mainwal movement, Main Naseer Muhammad handed him over the control of Johi and Dhaonk Valley areas. Thus influence of Khosa started manifesting and spreading from Chhinni to Dhaonk Valley. When Main Sahib ordered him to take over the Luk Gari (Gari Pass) or Luk Lohi area and repulse the attacks from Brohis, he after giving the area of Chhinni in the charge of Bashaam Faqeer Khoso, Shahdad Khoso and Golo Khoso took control of Luk Gari near Tando Rahim Khan. Gazi Shah was a generous and poor friendly person. He brought Dhonk Valley under cultivation from the stream flowing there. He got installed a flour grinder and started Langer (food distribution) for poor and destitute. For his generosity and poor friendly behavior Main Naseer conferred on him the title of Ganj Bux. Local people had great respect and veneration for Gaji Shah. Many areas are connected with his name in surrounding localities. One Kunb (natural fountain), near the flow of Khan Wahi is connected to his name. A Wahi (small stream) flowing in Dhaonk Mathri and the site of Bhunji are also forenamed after him. In the Longer backing of roat (especial thick and big meal) is famous but nowadays the roat is only backed and distributed during the days of fair (festivity on the occasion of his annual anniversary) Gaji Shah was martyred in 1102 Hijraj which is 1691 AD, one year prior to the demise of Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro, in the result of the bloody encounter with Brohis at the site of the lohi (now in Balochistan). There is legend that his body was placed on a she-camel and that she-camel stopped and sat on the hill where his mausoleum stands today which has become visiting place for thousands of faithful on daily basis. There were signs of already existing ancient graveyard where he was laid to rest. On the occasion of his annual anniversary the fair is held which is called shiv or siv (related to Shiva)in local parlance. From this nomenclature it becomes appear that a considerable number from Hindu community was also the part of his following and had been active in arranging the annual festivity. Nowadays faithful come from all over Sindh including Punjab to attend the annual fair. During the festivity the echo of Allah Tohaar and sound of surando (a local musical instrument) is being heard everywhere and Jin are extracted from psychological patients. Which is actually psychological aspect and people get relief psychologically.

Jangu Jamali

A small village in the name of Jangu Jamali is situated at the distance of 1KM south of Johi town in Dadu District. This village was built by Jango Jamali. Now in this village Kori, Jamali and Panhwar also reside. Jango Jamali was influential, Chieftain and active leader of Mainwal movement. His large treks of land stretched from Jango Jamali to Bakhar Shaheed (Martyred).  His descendants to this day are occupying the position of chiefs of his tribe and are well known as Jangwanis.  in Dadu Khosas started uprising,  he under the directions of main Naseer Muhammad fought many battles with them. During these battles this saying became common and popular that “Chhad Johi Wanj Lohi” (leave Johi and go to Lohi) this maxim gained currency during the heyday of the Khosa tribe in Dadu. There are some legends that “has my arms been cut by Khosas”. Khosas were extremely quarrelsome. Their terror spread far and wide in the area. After getting orders from Main Naseer Muhammad, Jango Jamali started taking on them. There is a legend that Piyaro Khoso raised the banner against Main Naseer Muhammad and Mian Naseer directed Jango to teach lesson to Piyaro. When piyaro Khoso fled from Johi, the people of the area took sigh of relief. Perhaps soon after the demise of Gaji Shah Mian Naseer Ahmed ordered Jango Jamali, to take control of Lohi Luk and to repeal the frequent attacks from Brohis.  Jango Jamali left his native village ‘Jango Jamali’ and formed new village and settled at the edge of Nain Haleli which at that time was known as village Haleli and is now  known  as  village Murad Khan Jamali.

The most famous and important achievement of Jango Jamali in Mainwal movement is that he defeated   Bulo Khoso. In Kai Valley (Sewhan) the criminal activities of Bulo khoso had increased at that time. On the one hand Mainwal Movement was busy resisting Mughal Government and on the other Bulo Khoso had increased highhandedness in the area of Johi, Dadu. His activities spread negative effect. Indirectly such activities of Bulo Khoso were in the interest of Mughal Rulers. Another common perception was that Bulo Khoso had murdered the two men of another tribe and the complain was brought before Jango Jamali who collected seven tribes to teach him a lesson and started joint battle against Bulo Khoso.  In these seven tribes who jointly fought against Bulo, included Leghari, Shahanies and Brohies. We can take the joining hands from seven tribes under Jango Jamali in the light  that all these tribes were under persecution of Bulo Khoso and other reason for the unity of all tribes against Bulo was that  certainly Main Naseer Muhammad might hand directed all tribes to support Jango Jamali in his action against Bulo Khoso. However Jango Khan Jamali along with the men from seven tribes attacked Bulo Khoso at the Village Bulo Ji Buthi (hilltop). After fighting valiantly Bulo Khoso was killed. The bravery of the Bulo can be gauged from the fact   that his brothers had advised him to leave the village Buthi but Bulo retorted in Siraiki Language ‘Buthi Chulay ta Bulo Chuayl’ (Bulo will only move when Village Buthi moved along with him). After the killing of Bulo there was some peace in the area. The influence of Jango Jamali increased in the area. Besides Kachho the mountainous area of Lohi also came under his headship. He died after the death of Main Naseer Muhammad around 1693-94. His resting place is situated at the hill on the edge of Nain Haleli. That graveyard is also famous with his name. The headship went to his predecessors Rahim Khan and Umar Khan but real headship has remained to Mehoon Khan Jangwani and his family.  At present Muhammad Khan Jangwani is the headman of the tribe.

The swords of Jango are still in the possession of family of Rahim Khan who had kept these safe to this day.

Fojo Faqeer

According to old sayings Fojo khan was Thaheem by caste and the residence of Village Hairo Khan in Dadu. Some refer him as Soomro by caste. Fojo past his whole life in the service of the leaders of Mainwal Movement. When main Naseer Muhammad built the Village Ghari in Kachho then he gave his original village Hatri in the control of fojo Faqeer (32) fojo faqeer did not marry till his old age. He is included among the Faqeers who used to live bachelor life. (33) During the period of the arrest of Main Naseer Muhammad his Followers remained dejected and disappointed due to his absence. (34) Then important responsibility had befallen on Fojo perhaps due to that reason a dictum gained prevalence that ‘bia sabh Mari waya  pag fojay tay’ ( All others died and responsibility as a leader eventually came  on fojo). It was deduced from this adage that despite his precariousness and old age the responsibility of leadership had been placed on his weak shoulders because of his loyalty to Mainwal leadership and their trust in his person. This saying is also reminiscent to the difficult and challenging   era of Main Deen Muhammad when during his arrest and subsequent martyrdom and the migration of Mian yar Muhammad to Kalat the Mainwal movement faced tough time. Thus movement became weak but at this testing time this faqeer had assumed the leadership of the movement and become strength of Main Yar Muhammad by taking responsibilities. Fojo Faqeer died in mature age after the return of Mian Yar Muhammad from Kalat.  One Deh in Dadu District is named after his name.

Gul Beg Faqeer

In local saying Faqeer Gul Beg is known with the name of Tangri. The grave of this faqeer is in the premise of the Gaji Shah’s Mausoleum which shows Gaji shah had has great affection and closeness with him. He might have accompanied Gaji Shah during the fight with Brohies. It can be surmised that Faqeer Gul Beg Tangri might have earned the status of the Martyr and given the proof of loyalty with the Mianwal Movement.

Jado Shaheed Babar

Faqeer Jado Saheed (Martyred) was Babar by Caste his village was Tharari in Dadu District Which latter on was named after his name and is called Tharari Jado Shaheed. Jado Faqeer was brave, popular for his prowess in using sword and was one of the most loyalist companions of Mian Naseer Muhammad. At the time of attack by Muezudin, Governor of Multan on Sindh, this Companion and loyalist of Main Naseer Muhammad was alive and active worker of Mainwal Movement. When after the arrest of Main Naseer Muhammad, Mughal Army attacked village Gari, Mian Yar Muhammad started battle with Mughal Troops. At that time Tajo Faqeer (Tajo Lekhi), Jado Faqeer and Bakhtiar lead their squads and fought with Royal Army (35). It is strongly speculated that Jado Faqeer Might had been martyred while fighting with royal troops. Although, even, his sacrifice of martyrdom did not result in the defeat of Mughal Armey. He was buried near Village Tharari Jado shaheed where a mausoleum has been built over his grave. Year of his martyrdom is around 1699. There is one Deh and one tapo (Circle) after his name.

Mir Sobdar Khan Talpur

Mir Sobdar Khan S/O Mir Suleman alias Mir Kako Khan belonged to Mainwal Movement. He enjoyed great influence and acquaintance to Main Naseer Muhammad.  When Kalhora Sardars have expelled Chandias, he got amnesty for Bago Kahn, the chieftain of Cahdio tribe. (36) His mausoleum is in the graveyard of Mian Naseer Muhammad.

Bago or Bagho Khan Chandio 

Bagho Chadio was chieftain of his tribe. Perhaps he belonged to the Maado area of Faridabad. Earlier he resisted Main Naseer Muhammad. But when his tribe became weak in the comparison of Kalhora leaders then he arrived to Sobdar Khan for begging forgiveness.  Perhaps then he entered the circle of Mainwal Movement.  When Kalhoras expelled the Sardars of Chandias then Bagho Faqeer had urged Mian Sobdar Khan and Main Sobdar Khan sought amnesty for Chandai Sardars. .(37) His mausoleum is  in  the graveyard of Mian Naseer Muhammad beside the mausoleum of Mir Sobdar Khan Talpur.

Faqeer Bakhar Shaheed

Bakhar Shaheed Perhaps belonged to Chandio tribe. In some unrecorded references he has been referred Panhwar by caste. No authentic reference about his tribe or family background is available. There is this legend about Bakhar Shaheed that a cow had been stolen of an old woman. That old woman went to him. Bakhar Shaheed Went after the Thieves on the way when he reached the thieves there was a quarrel and consequently Bakhar Shaheed was killed by thieves. However Bakhar Shaheed belonged to Mainwal Movement circle. At that time Johi in Dadu was a Village of Khosa Tribe. Piyaro Khoso was rebel against Mainwal Movement. He was a powerful chieftain and used to attack the villages of the supporters and followers of Mainwal Movement. Perhaps on the directions of Main Naseer Muhammad Bakhar Shaheed had been appointed on Potho area (now Village pat Suleman and Ahro) to keep Vigilance so that the attacks coming from Johi by the supporters of piyaro Khoso could be repelled and dealt with on time.   In the light of above mentioned legend it can be said that the killer of Bkakhar Shaheed might be stooges of Piyaro Khoso and he had been martyred during his resistance with them. Thus the reason of his martyrdom and subsequent fame was his connection with Mainwal movement rather than the cow of old woman.  Bakhar Shaheed had also been made responsible for cultivation of the land in that area. His mausoleum is situated 7 or 8 KM in Kachho area in the west of the Taluka Johi of District Dadu and is center of the faithful visitors.

Inayat Shah Alias Inayat Shah Dandu

Inayat Shah was very active and important worker of Mainwal Movement.  There are legends for him that he was Tagar by Caste and his upper teeth were pointed outward  therefore he was called Dando (meaning with pointed outward teeth). He possessed excellent qualities of commander therefore after making his permanent residence in village Ghari Main Naseer Muhammad gave the area of Kachho under the care of Inayat shah and he fully meet this responsibility.  According to Tuhfatulkiram he gave Kachho to Inayat Shah. (38)  After residing in Ghari in initial period Inayat Shah was meeting   his responsibilities of taking care of Kachho area. This faqeer remained Bachelor till his responsibilities in Kachho. After permanent residence there he built a village and remained busy in expending Mulk (area) and lands. (39)  After living in Ghari when Main Naseer Muhammad handed over the Kachho area to Inayat Shah then he not only brought the chieftains of Kachho into the circle of Mainwal Movement but with the help of these chieftains he also got dug the water courses on Nain Gaj for irrigation of the  fertile land of Kachho. These wahs included Gul Muhammad Wah, Jango Wah, Talib Wah, Raj Wah, Ghari Wah, Panjotho Wah, Karo Wah, Gur Wah, Ghahnwar Wah etc and brought the lands of Kachho under cultivation.  Perhaps he died some time before the demise of Main Naseer Muhammad. His grave is in the surrounding of village Bego Dero in Kachho area of Dadu.

Bahleel Shah

Real name of Bahleel shah had been referred as Bahar Ali Shah. There are two different opinions about his family background. According to one saying Bahleel Shah was Kaloi by Caste; Kaloi tribe had been residing in the Surroundings of village Bahleel Shah where archeological site mound has been linked to Kaloi tribe. Whereas, NG Majmudar had referred the mound as village Ali Murad Shahani. According to another account, Bahleel Shah Belonged to Chandio tribe. Chandios had great influence in this area during the era of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. At present Chandio tribe is residing in village Bahleel Shah. The caretakers of Mausoleum of Bahleel Shah are also Chandio who are called Faqeer. Where the devotees of Bahleel Shah live, Candia faqeers receive holy endowment (Dan) from them in the name of Bahleel Shah. The income of the mausoleum is also in the control of Chandios. Now these chandias faqeers have added new legend that Bahleel Shah Belonged to Bukhari Syed family. In Tareekh Sindh Kalhora period and Tufatulkram  the name of father of Jam Cheno or Muhammad chenay Khan is written  Bahlo or Bahleel (40) Jana-ul-Sindh writes, “In  9th generation of Mohammad bin Chania bin Bahleel bin Thal bin Mian Odhano, Adam Shah got birth lived at Hatri village of Dokri, Larkana and began to preach Mahdvi persuasion.(p-31). In above reference the father’s name of jam chano has very much similarity, with the only difference of letter “L”. There is huge possibility that Bahleel Shah belonged to the Mainwal movement and chadio tribe. The mausoleum of Bahleel Shah is situated at the distance of 15 or 16 Km from Johi on the hilltop in Kachho area of Dadu District where his annual anniversary is regularly celebrated.

Golo Faqeer Khoso

Golo Faqeer Was the Worker of Mainwal Movement whom Main Naseer Muhammad might have given responsibility to deal with the opponent tribes of Mainwal Movement. He was given responsibly to grab the cattle of the opponent to compel them to submit to the Mainwal movement. He was stealing the cattle of Panhwar tribe and was taking this cattle to the lohi area of Baluchistan stayed  on the location of Murad Ali Shahani to take rest as night have fallen  Panhwars who were tracking his footstep reached him and killed him in the wee hours of the morning while he was asleep (20). This statements looks weeks as how Panhwars were able to reach him in the morning as he has took the cattle a day before.  Probably Golo faqeer Khoso had stanched the cattle from the Panhwars and they have followed him and they had reached him at a hilltop near the point of Ali Murad Shahani. There fight might ensue and Golo Faqeer had been killed. This hill top is called  Golo faqeer ji Takri (the hilltop of Golo Faqeer) and people visit his grave  and offer charity for getting their requests accepted and problem solved. The people revere Golo faqeer for his connection to Mainwal Movement and they consider his act not wrong but legitimate. Golo faqeer commands that degree of respect among the local people to this day. According to some legends Main Naseer Muhammad had handed over large track of Land near Chhinni to Khosa tribe as the compensation of murder of Golo Faqeer. The grave of Bashaam Faqeer is also in this area.

Ganhwar Khan Lund

As soon as Mian Naseer Ahmed reached this area he gave this area in the control of Inayat Shah and with his efforts many tribes joined the circle of the Mainwal movement. Among these tribes Lund tribe tops the list. Many chieftains and common men from Lund tribe started joining Mainwal Movement. Gangway Khan was one of them. Due to his name one branch of Lund tribe calls itself Ghahwarani. The area of Arrari belonged to the Panhwar tribe. During the days of Shah Jahan as well as during the ears of his predecessors, Bahawaldin Panhwar was most powerful tribal chieftain and supporter of Mughal rulers. In his progeny Esa Panhwar, Jalal Panhwar, Daud, Moosa and Mir Panhwar had remained  prominent headmen they have  control and   influence over  the areas of Chhinni, Arari, Gaha and Samtani (42) to break their power surely Ghanhwar Kahn and Suleman Khan had been given this responsibility . Nine small villages were built in this area and were given the name of Noshahro (meaning seven cities). Till today these are called Noshahro. It is presumed that in the beginning Feroz Werar, the important commander of main Naseer Muhammad might have stayed here but afterwards he built the present city of District Noshahro feroz. Five canals were dug in Ghahnwar Wah for bringing this area under cultivation. The lands of Ghanhwarani Lund are still present in this area. Sakhi Alam Lund son of Ghahnwar Khan Lund was a renowned poet. Another prominent poet of masses belonging to this family is Meher faqeer Lund who had proved his mettle through his popular poetry. According to legends Tajo Lekhi, the close deputy of the Main Naseer Muhammad have kidnapped a woman from the tribe of Ghahnwar Khan and married her. Consequently Ghahnwar khan left Mainwal movement. Ghahnwar Khan died in the days of main Naseer Muhammad and was buried in the graveyard of Arari where his grave stands in crumbling condition.

Suleman Khan Lund

Suleman Khan Lund was an influential tribal chieftain. He was contemporary of Ghahnwar Khan and like Ghahnwar khan Main Naseer Muhammad gave big land holding to Suleman khan in the area of Arari which nowadays is known as pat Suleman. As have been mentioned above that Main Naseer Muhammad with the help of Ghahnwar khan and Suleman Khan broke the power of Panhwars in this area. And he gave lands to the Lund Sardar for supervision and management. According to some accounts he died in the age of 80 years and the graveyard in which he was laid to rest is know after his name.

Shahdad Khoso 

Shahdad Khan was among the supporter chieftain of Mian Naseer Muhammad. When Mian Naseer Muhammad occupied Chhinni Shahdad accompanied him and after the occupation this area was given into his control. During his stay in Chhinni Shahdad Built a village on a hilltop in the west of Chhinni, Which was called Shahdadpur? According some accounts after the residence of Shahdad Khan in Chhinni the Chhinni village was called Shahdadpur. During the uprising of Khosa in the area Shahdad might had sided with Gaji Shah Alias Gzi Shah. His grave exists in the west of Chhinni on a hilltop.

Alahdad Faqeer Lund

Alahdad Faqeer was a mystic and pious saint. He might belong to the faction of the Mainwal faqeers who believed in the power of preaching in the comparison of power of soward and were selected for the preaching.  Due to his prayer, meditation and piousness lot of people from surrounding areas became his faithful followers. Like many of other Mainwal faqeers detailed information about his life is not available. His tomb is situated five km in the east f Johi in Dadu District where annual fair is arranged on the occasion of his annual anniversary.

Gul Muhammad Khan Leghari

Gul Muhammad Khan Leghari belongs to the Talpur Period but his family was connected with Mainwal movement since the days of Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Most probably   Main Naseer Muhammad had granted the land to the family of Gul Muhammad Khan to break the power of Khosa Tribe in this area and due to the subsequent fame of Gul Muhammad Khan that land area had become famous as   pat Gul Muhammad. Family of Gul Muhammad Khan was famous as the Suhrabani Kaachhi (meaning of Kachho). Suhrab Khan Leghari was his elder. From his six generation were born Gul Muhammad Khan and Haji Khan Leghari. Haji Khan Leghari built the Village Haji Khan in District Dadu and the chieftainship continues to be held by his family. At present Akbar Khan Leghari is chief of the Leghari tribe. (43) The family of Gul Muhammad khan remains inhabitant in Pat Gul Muhammad. There was a huge and famous village of his family at the mouth of Nain Gaj. His early family had resided between the border of Halar Mountain and Johi, and used to check the attacks of the invaders from east. (44)  This makes it clear that his family was appointed earlier to check the attacks from mountain passes and later on Main Naseer Muhammad awarded them the lands in pat Gul Muhammad and gave them responsibility to   check possible attacks by khosas from east and southern sides. (45) From Mian Naseer Muhammad to Main Sarfraz and to Talpur Ameers, family of Gul Muhammad Leghari was included in derajat (of Main Naseer) Gul Muhammad Khan passed away in 1857. (46) He was laid to rest in the cemetery of Mian Naseer Muhammad.

Mureed Khan Jamali

Mureed Khan Jamali was one of the most loyal commanders and faithful of Main Naseer Muhammad. His original village or settlement was Mureed Dero. Most probably he was given task by Mian Naser Muhammad to break the power of Panhwars in Baghban and Phulji. At that time panhwar had great influence in village Phulji which was broken probably by Mureed Khan Jamali. Mureed khan Jamali was chief of his tribe. His tribe till today has suffixed the word Muridani after their caste. At present Datal Khan Jamali is the chief sardar of Jamali tribe.  Bakhsho Khan Jamali was from the fifth generation of Mureed Khan for whom Gold Smith says without any doubt that his family was from old deerajat (spanning from Main Naseer Muhammad) and his reference had been given by Mir Fatah Ali Khan in his book of Sandoon (certificates). And he himself was the chief of his tribe. His land area was in Dadu which measured 6000 bega (begho is a land measure equal to 22500 square ft)   (47) After Bakhsho khan, Bahwal Khan was also important sardar from the tribe of Mureed Kahn. A village and a Union Council Bahawalpur after are in his name. After them Muhammad Bux Mureedani has also been the well-known name of this family who was chief of the Jamali clan and prominent politician of Dadu District. Bakhsho Khan possessed ¼ area of Deh Phulji in the days of Mir Murad Ali Khan and Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro had granted him 500 bega (in same Deh) (48)  Moreover Bakhsho khan was recognized as important tribal chieftain during British era and according to official certificate issued on May 4, 1861 British Government had granted him 5000 begho. Bakhsho Khan Passed away on March 7, 1873 (49) Mureed Khan Jamali remained loyal tribal chief of Mainwal Movement. Probably he died after the demise of Main Naseer Muhammad Kolhoro.

Hamid Shah Faqeer

Hamid Shah Faqeer was counted as one of the most faithful and loyal disciple of Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. History is silent about his life and achievements.  His grave is situated in the north of Inayat Shah.

Wachho Faqeer Babar

Wachho Faqeer is included in the important commanders of the Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. In some legends he has been called Khoso by caste.  Wachho Pat is available in Dadu District in his name. Possibly he had been given land near Hero Khan in the south which is called Wachho Pat. It is speculated that Wachho was important personality of that era therefore he was given large tracks of Land. His tomb is in the Wachho pat Graveyard.

Roohal Faqeer Khoso 

Last resting place of this faqeer is situated in the east of FP Band near Johi, in Dadu. Locally he is famous as Roohal Rauonk. We think that Raoonk is in fact distortion of word raank. Raank is a type of mausoleum. The Raank might have been built over his grave and that word raank might have been distorted and converted into raoonk. Roohal raoonk denotes a raank of Roohal. Due to heavy floods raank had been washed away and now only signs of his grave have been left out. According to local legends Roohal faqeer belonged to the Khosa tribe of Gaji Shah. Probably Roohal faqeer was an important personality of Khosa tribe living at Johi. Khosas continued activities against Mainwal movement. Roohal helped and supported Mianwal movement. His death was natural or he became target of any battle, in this regard no authentic reference is available. His tomb is visiting place for faithful to this day. There is belief among local people that the flood water cannot sink his grave.

Miran Machhi Solangi

Miran Machhi Solangi was powerful tribal chief of his clan. He was commonly known with the title of Sirai. There is a Village and a Deh in his name in Dadu Deh Miran Machhi and Dara Machhi had remained under his control and care. There was Mausoleum of Miran Machhi Solangi in this area but after 1995 flood it was completely washed away by high flow of flood water. The area where his tomb stands is famous in the name of Kubo (meaning tomb). Miran Solangi was one of the active worker and sympathizer of Main Nasser Muhammad. He possessed considerable knowledge about construction and architecture.  After Main Naseer Muhammad he also remained loyal fellow and military commander of Main Deen Muhammad. Probably, on the direction of Main Deen Muhammad, Miran Machhi remained busy in construction of a fort on the embankment of Manchhar Lake. On the news of construction of fort, Bakhtiar Kaki, the Mughal representative complained to Mughal government in dehli. In the result of this complain the Mughal Government from Dehli wrote to Main Deen Muhammad that it is evident from the letter of Bakhtiar Kaki that Miran Faqeer on  the incitement  of some crooks is constructing the fort on the place of Kangani at the embankment of Manchhar which land  is under occupation of Bakhtiar kaki. Miran Machhi should not have been indulged in such scam. (50)  Probably after the martyrdom of Main Deen Muhammad, Miran Machhi passed away. His tomb was in the west of Sher Mohammad Jamali located on the left side of Johi-Chhini road. This whole area is called “Qubo” or “Qubo Miran Machhi”.

Yaro Faqeer Redhar (Shepherd)

Yaro Faqeer was Rind by Caste and was residing in Nain Taki of Kachho area. He kept Sheep therefore became famous as Yaro redhar or Yaro redhu. He was among most faithful of Main Naseer Muhammad. There is a legend connected to Yaro that once a certain Hakeem (doctor) advised Main Nasser Muhammad to get certain herb for his treatment. Mian Naseer Muhammad sent word to Yaro Faqeer to arrange for that herb. Yaro Faqeer went to mountain area but could not recognize that particular Herb. Therefore he pulled entire big rock containing different herbs and brought it on his head to the village of Main Nasser Muhammad. Main Nasser Muhammad was impressed and satisfied on this act of Yaro faqeer. This legend shows his physical strength not any heavenly power. Probably Yaro was a tall and sturdy person therefore such legends had been connected to him. Yaro Faqeer was not only cattle grazer but he had also been responsible for repelling the attacks from mountain passes in the west of Nain Taki. After his death he was buried near his village on the southern Bank of Nain Taki.

Rajo Lekhi Faqeer  

Family of Lekhi enjoyed great respect and importance in Mainwal Movement and from Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Due to their work of writing they were called Lekhi (meaning writers). Rajo or raju Lekhi was counted as one of the very important man of Mian Naseer Muhammad.  He was given lands cultivated whole year on the water of Nain Gaj where he built village which is know as Rajo Dero  in Dadu. He dug watercourses to bring lands under cultivation on the water of Nain Gaj which is named after his name called Rajo Wah and is one of the important Wahs of Kachho areas of Dadu District. His son Tajo Lekhi had already served as important Military Commander of Mian Naseer Muhammad and had fought in the troops of Main Yar Muhammad’s deceive battle with Mughal Army at the embankment of Nain Gaj. After their death Rajo-1 and Tajo Lekhi- I was laid to rest in the cemetery of Main Naseer Muhammad.

Pandhi Khan Leghari

Pandhi Khan I Leghari was leader of his community. He was a sturdy man and expert in prowess of soward. When, Main Naseer Muhammad had established   provisional government in Kachho area of Dadu District. Then probably he had made arrangement for the residence in the southern areas of Kachho for the Khosa Tribes who were supporters of Gaji Shah. We had mentioned above with the historical references that wahi was the village of Machhi tribe and before that channa Tribe was settled there. Shamsher Kahn Uzbek snatched this area from Machhis, handed it over to the Panhwars and renamed this area as Akbarabad. Main Nasser Muhammad drove the Panhwars out from all these Villages. Main built a fort in Wahi.  Gaji Kunb in the eastern hills supports this contention. It is being stated in local legends that Dilo Khoso resided in Wahi. Pandhi Kahn Leghari I after killing him drove out his supporters and he settled there. The graveyard after the name of Dilo Khoso is still there on the eastern hilltops. The grave of Dilo Khoso is also in that graveyard. Probably when the insurgency among khoso tribe happened in this areas (southern Kachho) and those khosas who sided with the opponents of Gaji Shah and Main Nasser Muhammad, then on the direction of Main Nasser Muhammad, Commander Pandhi Khan-1 killed Dillo Khoso drove his supporters out and settled in Wahi. After his residence the Village Wahi is known after his name. Main Naseer Muhammad had also given responsibility   to Pandhi Khan to keep eye on the Brohi attackers from western Mountain passes and repel their attacks.  At present among the family of Pandhi Khan include Asdullah Khan Ali Nawaz Khan, Dodo Khan and Rais Ali Ghualm Khan. Probably Pandhi Kahn (I) died during the days of Main Nasser Muhammad Khan.  Kalhoras, Talpur as well as British included Pandhi Khan (I) in Deerajat and granted lands to his family. He was laid to rest in the Graveyard of Dilo in the west of Wahi Pandhi

Qalandar Khan Leghari

Qaladar Khan Leghari was born from the third generation of Suhrab Khan Leghari.  Form the family of Qalandar Khan, Haji Khan Leghari was born who later on also became chieftain of his tribe. The family of Qlandar Leghari was well-wishers and faithful to Kalhora dynasty. He had been given the large landholding in existing Deh Qubo Qladar which is still under the control of his present offspring. Probably Qalandar khan passed away during the period of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro and was buried in the Graveyard of Deh Qubo Qalandar which afterwards was called after his name. The Family of Suhrabani Legharies got divided into two branches due to the connection to two chieftains (52) Moosa and Maqsood, in the family of Moosa Sardars of Haji Khan grown and family of Gul Muhammad Khan is from the generation of Maqsood.

Shahan Faqeer

Shahaan Khan belongs to the Rodnani tribe. According to local legends Shahaan was among the close faithful of Mian Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. Probably during the attack on Chhinni by Nasser Muhammad, he (Shahaan) included in the circle of faithful of Main Naseer Muhammad. Shahaan Faqeer was head of his tribe. From his family Golo Faqeer also remain connected to Mainwal Movement. At present Village Tulh is called in the name of Golo Faqeer. Shah Muhammad Khan was also a prominent tribal chief of his tribe. More information about the life and work of Shahaan Faqeer is not available.  Probably he passed away during the period of Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. He was buried near the village. A mausoleum had been built on his grave which is known as Tomb of Shahaan.

Zahir Suhrab Faqeer Kingrani

The name of this faqeer was Suhrab and his title was Zahir. He was faithful of Main Naseer Muhammad, and was conferred that title by Main Naseer Muhammad Kalhoro. There is historical reference about him (53). But that brief reference did not provide detailed information about his life advisements. The resting place of Suhrab Faqeer to local legends, Suhrab Faqeer Kingrani remained busy in prayer and meditation at that place. The history is silent about his death and burial.

Shah Panjo Sultan

Shah Panjo Sultan was one of the most genius and potential members of Mianwal movement. He belonged to Dahot clan. (54) When Mian Naseer was imprisoned, Shah Panjo and Gaji Shah had leaded the movement. He and Gaji Shah had same level and respect among the Mianwals. He devoted his life for Mianwal movement. Since his settlement village was called Shah Panjo Sultan. After passing away, he was buried at his village Shah Panjo, which is 5 or 6 kilometers away from Radhan station in the east-south, where his glorious mausoleum is a centre of pilgrimage for all his devotees.

Books and References

1, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 372.

2, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 130

3, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 372.

4, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 134

5, same reference page: 138

6, same reference page: 139

7, same reference page: 140

8, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 375

9, same reference

10, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, page: 229

11, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 148

12, same reference page: 150

13, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, page: 229

14, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 148

15, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 381

16, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 154,155

17, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 375

18, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 157

19, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 376

20, same reference page: 381

21, same reference

22, same reference

23, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 168, 169

24, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 381

25, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, page: 231

26, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 79

27, same reference page: 86

28, same reference

29, same reference page: 85

30, same reference

31, same reference

32, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, page: 229

33, same reference

34, Ramimdad Molai Shidai, Janat-ul-Sindh,, Sindhica Academy. Year 2000, page: 375

35, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 170

36, Mir Mohammad Bux Talpur, Johi mein Talpur Amiran ja Muqbra, Quarterly Mihran Jan-Feb:         1973, page: 161

37, same reference

38, Mir Ali Sher Qani’a, Tuhfatul Kiram, Sindhi Adabi Board, 2004, page: 229

39, same reference

41, Dr: Nabi Bux Baloch, Jang Nama, Sindhi Adabi Board, 487.

42, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 153, 190 and Yousif merik, Tareekh Mazhar Shah Jahani, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1994, pages: 195,240,245,303

43, Husain Badshah Sindh mein Jagirun ji Tarikh, Roshni Publication Hyderabad, 2005, p: 472

44, same reference: 487

45, same reference

46, same reference page: 488

47, same reference page: 501

48, same reference

49, same reference page: 504

50, Ghulam Rasool Mahar History of Sindh Kalhora period volume-1, 1996, page: 137

51, same reference page: 170

52, Husain Badshah Sindh mein Jagirun ji Tarikh, Roshni Publication Hyderabad, 2005, p-476

53, Hakeem Abdul Hamid Chandio, Utar Kaachho

54, Prof: Abdullah Magsi, Sindh ji Tarikh Jo Jadid Mutali’o, Sindhica Academy, 1994, p- 121

English Translation by Gul Sher Panhwar


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